Concluding a research paper seems to be a less tiresome job than actually creating a research paper. Students assume that it may not consume their enough time and efforts if they are assigned to create a summary of an already existing research paper. However, the assumption is half wrong. It is unmistakably true that the process of research paper writing is a lot rigorous type of work to do. But you cannot afford to take conclusion a paper non-seriously. It surely needs some homework and skills before you get your hands on a research paper written by someone else and summarising its theme and central points in one paper. It is your responsibility towards the paper and its author to produce an accurate summary. Leaving out important points or projecting wrong results related to the paper will clearly kill the purpose of the research paper that was written by another author.
No single formula exists that one should follow to conclude a research paper.
The reason is that every research paper is unique and different in its sense. Each research paper contains different chapters, sections, formats and tools to prove the point. Therefore, one should have a better understanding of how to evaluate and examine a particular research paper and summarise it according to its content specifically.
It is a common habit found among the young and immature students that they assume the 'abstract' of the paper to be serving as the summary for them. They avoid getting into the horrifying task of reading the entire paper line by line and chapter by chapter. However, it is true to some extent that the abstract of a research paper does provide some necessary information that helps student guide through the process. But it surely cannot replace reading entire paper to produce an exact summary.
While reading the paper, keep a paper and pen with you.
Start noting down the important points of each section of the paper that you think should be present in summary. Highlight important facts and statements too. Spend some time understanding the introduction of the paper. It will give your work the exact direction needed because the introduction of a research paper mainly focuses on the purpose and objectives of the paper and that's what you need to present in your summary. But do not use the only introduction to write the summary. You cannot give your summary the required finishing touch if you don't read every section of the paper.
Analyse the data and gather important facts and stats about it to put in your summary.
In the chapters where the writer has used different methods or explained procedural working or processes of a certain phenomenon, you need to understand it to a degree from where you would be able to analyse how the writer was able to conclude results coming out of such methodology. When you are finished reading the conclusion or the last chapter of the research paper, create a sentence that serves as the concluding sentence of your summary and elaborates the conclusions drawn by the writer at the end of the paper.
Following above discussed points strictly could enable you to produce an accurate summary of any research paper offered to you.
One of the limitations of this research study was the constitution of the sample. First, students were not randomly selected from a larger population to participate in the study. Information about the study was sent home with all of the students at Tonganoxie Elementary School. The parents then had to sign and return an informed consent document. This might have biased the sample. However, the teachers at Tonganoxie Elementary School commented that students from a range of ability levels participated in the study. The sample was also relatively homogeneous with mostly Caucasian middle class students who lived in a relatively rural community. Therefore, the results might not generalize to other student populations, particularly those in an urban community or those with greater diversity in ethnicity and social class.
Since the experimenter in the study also authored the paper, the experimenter might have biased students' responses during the task. However, this conclusion was unlikely since the results for the Number Series task were contrary to the original hypothesis. Regardless, a blind administration of the experiment would have been desirable.
A ceiling effect also most likely influenced performance on the Equivalence task, with most students having nearly perfect scores. This effect might have masked differences in performance between the Pictorial and Numeral conditions, particularly in the high ability and second grade samples.