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Ufo Bibliography

For other uses, see Unidentified flying object (disambiguation).

"UFO" redirects here. For other uses, see UFO (disambiguation).

"ufo" redirects here. For the genus of gall-wasps, see Ufo (genus).

An unidentified flying object or UFO, is defined as a perceived object in the sky, not identifiable by standard criteria. Most UFOs are later identified as conventional objects or phenomena. The term is widely used for claimed observations of extraterrestrial craft.

Terminology

The term "UFO" (or "UFOB") was coined in 1953 by the United States Air Force (USAF) to serve as a catch-all for all such reports. In its initial definition, the USAF stated that a "UFOB" was "any airborne object which by performance, aerodynamic characteristics, or unusual features, does not conform to any presently known aircraft or missile type, or which cannot be positively identified as a familiar object." Accordingly, the term was initially restricted to that fraction of cases which remained unidentified after investigation, as the USAF was interested in potential national security reasons and/or "technical aspects" (see Air Force Regulation 200-2).

During the late 1940s and through the 1950s, UFOs were often referred to popularly as "flying saucers" or "flying discs". The term UFO became more widespread during the 1950s, at first in technical literature, but later in popular use. UFOs garnered considerable interest during the Cold War, an era associated with a heightened concern for national security, and, more recently, in the 2010s, for unexplained reasons.[1][2] Nevertheless, various studies have concluded that the phenomenon does not represent a threat to national security, nor does it contain anything worthy of scientific pursuit (e.g., 1951 Flying Saucer Working Party, 1953 CIARobertson Panel, USAF Project Blue Book, Condon Committee).

The Oxford English Dictionary defines a UFO as "An unidentified flying object; a 'flying saucer'." The first published book to use the word was authored by Donald E. Keyhoe.[3]

The acronym "UFO" was coined by Captain Edward J. Ruppelt, who headed Project Blue Book, then the USAF's official investigation of UFOs. He wrote, "Obviously the term 'flying saucer' is misleading when applied to objects of every conceivable shape and performance. For this reason the military prefers the more general, if less colorful, name: unidentified flying objects. UFO (pronounced Yoo-foe) for short."[4] Other phrases that were used officially and that predate the UFO acronym include "flying flapjack", "flying disc", "unexplained flying discs", and "unidentifiable object".[5][6][7]

The phrase "flying saucer" had gained widespread attention after the summer of 1947. On June 24, a civilian pilot named Kenneth Arnold reported seeing nine objects flying in formation near Mount Rainier. Arnold timed the sighting and estimated the speed of discs to be over 1,200 mph (1,931 km/h). At the time, he claimed he described the objects flying in a saucer-like fashion, leading to newspaper accounts of "flying saucers" and "flying discs".[8][9]

In popular usage, the term UFO came to be used to refer to claims of alien spacecraft.[3] and because of the public and media ridicule associated with the topic, some ufologists and investigators prefer to use terms such as "unidentified aerial phenomenon" (UAP) or "anomalous phenomena", as in the title of the National Aviation Reporting Center on Anomalous Phenomena (NARCAP).[10] "Anomalous aerial vehicle" (AAV) or "unidentified aerial system" (UAS) are also sometimes used in a military aviation context to describe unidentified targets.[11]

Studies

Studies have established that the majority of UFO observations are misidentified conventional objects or natural phenomena—most commonly aircraft, balloons, noctilucent clouds, nacreous clouds, or astronomical objects such as meteors or bright planets with a small percentage even being hoaxes.[note 1] Between 5% and 20% of reported sightings are not explained, and therefore can be classified as unidentified in the strictest sense. While proponents of the extraterrestrial hypothesis (ETH) suggest that these unexplained reports are of alien spacecraft, the null hypothesis cannot be excluded that these reports are simply other more prosaic phenomena that cannot be identified due to lack of complete information or due to the necessary subjectivity of the reports.

While UFOs have been the subject of extensive investigation by various governments and although a few scientists have supported the extraterrestrial hypothesis, almost no scientific papers about UFOs have been published in peer-reviewed journals.[12] There was, in the past, some debate in the scientific community about whether any scientific investigation into UFO sightings is warranted with the general conclusion being that the phenomenon was not worthy of serious investigation except as a cultural artifact.[13][14][15][16][17][18][19]

The void left by the lack of institutional scientific study has given rise to independent researchers and groups, including the National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena (NICAP) in the mid-20th century and, more recently, the Mutual UFO Network (MUFON)[20] and the Center for UFO Studies (CUFOS).[21] The term "Ufology" is used to describe the collective efforts of those who study reports and associated evidence of unidentified flying objects.[22]

UFOs have become a prevalent theme in modern culture,[23] and the social phenomena have been the subject of academic research in sociology and psychology.[12]

Early history

Unexplained aerial observations have been reported throughout history. Some were undoubtedly astronomical in nature: comets, bright meteors, one or more of the five planets that can be seen with the naked eye, planetary conjunctions, or atmospheric optical phenomena such as parhelia and lenticular clouds. An example is Halley's Comet, which was recorded first by Chinese astronomers in 240 BC and possibly as early as 467 BC. Such sightings throughout history often were treated as supernatural portents, angels, or other religious omens. Some current-day UFO researchers have noticed similarities between some religious symbols in medieval paintings and UFO reports[24] though the canonical and symbolic character of such images is documented by art historians placing more conventional religious interpretations on such images.[25]

  • On April 14, 1561, residents of Nuremberg described the appearance of a large black triangular object. According to witnesses, there were also hundreds of spheres, cylinders and other odd-shaped objects that moved erratically overhead.[26]
  • On January 25, 1878, the Denison Daily News printed an article in which John Martin, a local farmer, had reported seeing a large, dark, circular object resembling a balloon flying "at wonderful speed." Martin, according to the newspaper account, said it appeared to be about the size of a saucer, the first known use of the word "saucer" in association with a UFO.[27]
  • In April 1897, thousands of people reported seeing "airships" in various parts of the United States. Many signed affidavits. Scores of people even reported talking to the pilots. Thomas Edison was asked his opinion, and said, "You can take it from me that it is a pure fake."[28][29]
  • On February 28, 1904, there was a sighting by three crew members on the USS Supply 300 miles (483 km) west of San Francisco, reported by Lieutenant Frank Schofield, later to become Commander-in-Chief of the Pacific Battle Fleet. Schofield wrote of three bright red egg-shaped and circular objects flying in echelon formation that approached beneath the cloud layer, then changed course and "soared" above the clouds, departing directly away from the earth after two to three minutes. The largest had an apparent size of about six Suns, he said.[30][31]
  • The three earliest known pilot UFO sightings, of 1,305 similar sightings catalogued by NARCAP, took place in 1916 and 1926. On January 31, 1916, a UK pilot near Rochford reported a row of lights, resembling lighted windows on a railway carriage, that rose and disappeared. In January 1926 a pilot reported six "flying manhole covers" between Wichita, Kansas, and Colorado Springs, Colorado. In late September 1926 an airmail pilot over Nevada said he had been forced to land by a huge, wingless, cylindrical object.[32]
  • On August 5, 1926, while traveling in the Humboldt Mountains of Tibet's Kokonor region, Russian explorer Nicholas Roerich reported, members of his expedition saw "something big and shiny reflecting the sun, like a huge oval moving at great speed. Crossing our camp the thing changed in its direction from south to southwest. And we saw how it disappeared in the intense blue sky. We even had time to take our field glasses and saw quite distinctly an oval form with shiny surface, one side of which was brilliant from the sun."[33] Another description by Roerich was of a "shiny body flying from north to south. Field glasses are at hand. It is a huge body. One side glows in the sun. It is oval in shape. Then it somehow turns in another direction and disappears in the southwest."[34]
  • In the Pacific and European theatres during World War II, "foo fighters" (metallic spheres, balls of light and other shapes that followed aircraft) were reported and on occasion photographed by Allied and Axis pilots. Some proposed Allied explanations at the time included St. Elmo's fire, the planet Venus, hallucinations from oxygen deprivation, or German secret weapons.[35][36]
  • In 1946, more than 2,000 reports were collected, primarily by the Swedish military, of unidentified aerial objects over the Scandinavian nations, along with isolated reports from France, Portugal, Italy and Greece. The objects were referred to as "Russian hail" and later as "ghost rockets" because it was thought that the mysterious objects were possibly Russian tests of captured German V1 or V2rockets. Although most were thought to be such natural phenomena as meteors, more than 200 were tracked on radar by the Swedish military and deemed to be "real physical objects." In a 1948 top secret document, Swedish authorities advised the USAF Europe that some of their investigators believed these craft to be extraterrestrial in origin.[37]

Investigations

UFOs have been subject to investigations over the years that varied widely in scope and scientific rigor. Governments or independent academics in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Japan, Peru, France, Belgium, Sweden, Brazil, Chile, Uruguay, Mexico, Spain, and the Soviet Union are known to have investigated UFO reports at various times.

Among the best known government studies are the ghost rockets investigation by the Swedish military (1946–1947), Project Blue Book, previously Project Sign and Project Grudge, conducted by the USAF from 1947 until 1969, the secret U.S. Army/Air Force Project Twinkle investigation into green fireballs (1948–1951), the secret USAF Project Blue Book Special Report No. 14[38] by the Battelle Memorial Institute, and the Brazilian Air Force's 1977 Operação Prato (Operation Saucer). France has had an ongoing investigation (GEPAN/SEPRA/GEIPAN) within its space agency Centre national d'études spatiales (CNES) since 1977; the government of Uruguay has had a similar investigation since 1989.

Project Sign

Main article: Project Sign

Project Sign in 1948 produced a highly classified finding (see Estimate of the Situation) that the best UFO reports probably had an extraterrestrial explanation. A top secret Swedish military opinion given to the USAF in 1948 stated that some of their analysts believed that the 1946 ghost rockets and later flying saucers had extraterrestrial origins. (For document, see Ghost rockets.) In 1954 German rocket scientist Hermann Oberth revealed that an internal West German government investigation, which he headed, had arrived at an extraterrestrial conclusion, but this study was never made public.

Project Grudge

Main article: Project Grudge

Project Sign was dismantled and became Project Grudge at the end of 1948. Angered by the low quality of investigations by Grudge, the Air Force Director of Intelligence reorganized it as Project Blue Book in late 1951, placing Ruppelt in charge. Blue Book closed down in 1970, using the Condon Committee's negative conclusion as a rationale, thus ending official Air Force UFO investigations. However, a 1969 USAF document, known as the Bolender memo, along with later government documents, revealed that non-public U.S. government UFO investigations continued after 1970. The Bolender memo first stated that "reports of unidentified flying objects that could affect national security ... are not part of the Blue Book system," indicating that more serious UFO incidents already were handled outside the public Blue Book investigation. The memo then added, "reports of UFOs which could affect national security would continue to be handled through the standard Air Force procedures designed for this purpose."[note 2] In addition, in the late 1960s a chapter on UFOs in the Space Sciences course at the U.S. Air Force Academy gave serious consideration to possible extraterrestrial origins. When word of the curriculum became public, the Air Force in 1970 issued a statement to the effect that the book was outdated and that cadets instead were being informed of the Condon Report's negative conclusion.[39]

USAF Regulation 200-2

Air Force Regulation 200-2,[40] issued in 1953 and 1954, defined an Unidentified Flying Object ("UFOB") as "any airborne object which by performance, aerodynamic characteristics, or unusual features, does not conform to any presently known aircraft or missile type, or which cannot be positively identified as a familiar object." The regulation also said UFOBs were to be investigated as a "possible threat to the security of the United States" and "to determine technical aspects involved." The regulation went on to say that "it is permissible to inform news media representatives on UFOB's when the object is positively identified as a familiar object," but added: "For those objects which are not explainable, only the fact that ATIC [Air Technical Intelligence Center] will analyze the data is worthy of release, due to many unknowns involved."[40]

Project Blue Book

Main article: Project Blue Book

J. Allen Hynek, a trained astronomer who served as a scientific advisor for Project Blue Book, was initially skeptical of UFO reports, but eventually came to the conclusion that many of them could not be satisfactorily explained and was highly critical of what he described as "the cavalier disregard by Project Blue Book of the principles of scientific investigation."[41] Leaving government work, he founded the privately funded CUFOS, to whose work he devoted the rest of his life. Other private groups studying the phenomenon include the MUFON, a grass roots organization whose investigator's handbooks go into great detail on the documentation of alleged UFO sightings.

Like Hynek, Jacques Vallée, a scientist and prominent UFO researcher, has pointed to what he believes is the scientific deficiency of most UFO research, including government studies. He complains of the mythology and cultism often associated with the phenomenon, but alleges that several hundred professional scientists—a group both he and Hynek have termed "the invisible college"—continue to study UFOs in private.[23]

Scientific studies

The study of UFOs has received little support in mainstream scientific literature. Official studies ended in the U.S. in December 1969, following the statement by the government scientist Edward Condon that further study of UFOs could not be justified on grounds of scientific advancement.[15][42] The Condon Report and its conclusions were endorsed by the National Academy of Scientists, of which Condon was a member. On the other hand, a scientific review by the UFO subcommittee of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) disagreed with Condon's conclusion, noting that at least 30 percent of the cases studied remained unexplained and that scientific benefit might be gained by continued study.

Critics argue that all UFO evidence is anecdotal[43] and can be explained as prosaic natural phenomena. Defenders of UFO research counter that knowledge of observational data, other than what is reported in the popular media, is limited in the scientific community and that further study is needed.[23][44]

No official government investigation has ever publicly concluded that UFOs are indisputably real, physical objects, extraterrestrial in origin, or of concern to national defense. These same negative conclusions also have been found in studies that were highly classified for many years, such as the UK's Flying Saucer Working Party, Project Condign, the U.S. CIA-sponsored Robertson Panel, the U.S. military investigation into the green fireballs from 1948 to 1951, and the Battelle Memorial Institute study for the USAF from 1952 to 1955 (Project Blue Book Special Report No. 14).

Some public government reports have acknowledged the possibility of physical reality of UFOs, but have stopped short of proposing extraterrestrial origins, though not dismissing the possibility entirely. Examples are the Belgian military investigation into large triangles over their airspace in 1989–1991 and the 2009 Uruguayan Air Force study conclusion (see below).

Some private studies have been neutral in their conclusions, but argued that the inexplicable core cases call for continued scientific study. Examples are the Sturrock panel study of 1998 and the 1970 AIAA review of the Condon Report.

United States

U.S. investigations into UFOs include:

  • The Interplanetary Phenomenon Unit (IPU), established by the U.S. Army sometime in the 1940s, and about which little is known. In 1987, British UFO researcher Timothy Good received from the Army's director of counter-intelligence a letter confirming the existence of the IPU. The letter stated that "the aforementioned Army unit was disestablished during the late 1950s and never reactivated. All records pertaining to this unit were surrendered to the U.S. Air Force Office of Special Investigations in conjunction with operation BLUEBOOK." The IPU records have never been released.[45]
  • Project Blue Book, previously Project Sign and Project Grudge, conducted by the USAF from 1947 until 1969
  • The secret U.S. Army/Air Force Project Twinkle investigation into green fireballs (1948–1951)
  • Ghost rockets investigations by the Swedish, UK, U.S., and Greek militaries (1946–1947)
  • The secret CIA Office of Scientific Investigation (OS/I) study (1952–53)
  • The secret CIA Robertson Panel (1953)
  • The secret USAF Project Blue Book Special Report No. 14 by the Battelle Memorial Institute (1951–1954)
  • The Brookings Report (1960), commissioned by NASA
  • The public Condon Committee (1966–1968)
  • The private, internal RAND Corporation study (1968)[46]
  • The private Sturrock panel (1998)
  • The secret Advanced Aviation Threat Identification Program which was funded from 2007 to 2012.[47]

Thousands of documents released under FOIA also indicate that many U.S. intelligence agencies collected (and still collect) information on UFOs. These agencies include the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), FBI,[7] CIA, National Security Agency (NSA), as well as military intelligence agencies of the Army and U.S. Navy, in addition to the Air Force.[note 3]

The investigation of UFOs has also attracted many civilians, who in the U.S formed research groups such as NICAP (active 1956–1980), Aerial Phenomena Research Organization (APRO) (active 1952–1988), MUFON (active 1969–), and CUFOS (active 1973–).

In November 2011, the White House released an official response to two petitions asking the U.S. government to acknowledge formally that aliens have visited this planet and to disclose any intentional withholding of government interactions with extraterrestrial beings. According to the response, "The U.S. government has no evidence that any life exists outside our planet, or that an extraterrestrial presence has contacted or engaged any member of the human race."[48][49] Also, according to the response, there is "no credible information to suggest that any evidence is being hidden from the public's eye."[48][49] The response further noted that efforts, like SETI and NASA's Kepler space telescope and Mars Science Laboratory, continue looking for signs of life. The response noted "odds are pretty high" that there may be life on other planets but "the odds of us making contact with any of them—especially any intelligent ones—are extremely small, given the distances involved."[48][49]

Post-1947 sightings

Following the large U.S. surge in sightings in June and early July 1947, on July 9, 1947, United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) intelligence, in cooperation with the FBI,[7] began a formal investigation into selected sightings with characteristics that could not be immediately rationalized, such as Kenneth Arnold's. The USAAF used "all of its top scientists" to determine whether "such a phenomenon could, in fact, occur." The research was "being conducted with the thought that the flying objects might be a celestial phenomenon," or that "they might be a foreign body mechanically devised and controlled."[50] Three weeks later in a preliminary defense estimate, the air force investigation decided that, "This 'flying saucer' situation is not all imaginary or seeing too much in some natural phenomenon. Something is really flying around."[51]

A further review by the intelligence and technical divisions of the Air Materiel Command at Wright Field reached the same conclusion. It reported that "the phenomenon is something real and not visionary or fictitious," that there were objects in the shape of a disc, metallic in appearance, and as big as man-made aircraft. They were characterized by "extreme rates of climb [and] maneuverability," general lack of noise, absence of trail, occasional formation flying, and "evasive" behavior "when sighted or contacted by friendly aircraft and radar," suggesting a controlled craft. It was therefore recommended in late September 1947 that an official Air Force investigation be set up to investigate the phenomenon. It was also recommended that other government agencies should assist in the investigation.[note 4]

Project Sign

This led to the creation of the Air Force's Project Sign at the end of 1947, one of the earliest government studies to come to a secret extraterrestrial conclusion. In August 1948, Sign investigators wrote a top-secret intelligence estimate to that effect, but the Air Force Chief of StaffHoyt Vandenberg ordered it destroyed. The existence of this suppressed report was revealed by several insiders who had read it, such as astronomer and USAF consultant J. Allen Hynek and Capt. Edward J. Ruppelt, the first head of the USAF's Project Blue Book.[52]

Another highly classified U.S. study was conducted by the CIA's Office of Scientific Investigation (OS/I) in the latter half of 1952 in response to orders from the National Security Council (NSC). This study concluded UFOs were real physical objects of potential threat to national security. One OS/I memo to the CIA Director (DCI) in December read:

the reports of incidents convince us that there is something going on that must have immediate attention ... Sightings of unexplained objects at great altitudes and traveling at high speeds in the vicinity of major U.S. defense installations are of such a nature that they are not attributable to natural phenomena or any known types of aerial vehicles.

The matter was considered so urgent that OS/I drafted a memorandum from the DCI to the NSC proposing that the NSC establish an investigation of UFOs as a priority project throughout the intelligence and the defense research and development community. It also urged the DCI to establish an external research project of top-level scientists, now known as the Robertson Panel to analyze the problem of UFOs. The OS/I investigation was called off after the Robertson Panel's negative conclusions in January 1953.[53]

Condon Committee

Main article: Condon Committee

A public research effort conducted by the Condon Committee for the USAF, which arrived at a negative conclusion in 1968, marked the end of the U.S. government's official investigation of UFOs, though various government intelligence agencies continue unofficially to investigate or monitor the situation.[note 5]

Controversy has surrounded the Condon Report, both before and after it was released. It has been observed that the report was "harshly criticized by numerous scientists, particularly at the powerful AIAA ... [which] recommended moderate, but continuous scientific work on UFOs."[15] In an address to the AAAS, James E. McDonald stated that he believed science had failed to mount adequate studies of the problem and criticized the Condon Report and earlier studies by the USAF as scientifically deficient. He also questioned the basis for Condon's conclusions[54] and argued that the reports of UFOs have been "laughed out of scientific court."[14] J. Allen Hynek, an astronomer who worked as a USAF consultant from 1948, sharply criticized the Condon Committee Report and later wrote two nontechnical books that set forth the case for continuing to investigate UFO reports.

Ruppelt recounted his experiences with Project Blue Book, a USAF investigation that preceded Condon's.[55]

Notable cases

  • The Roswell UFO incident (1947) involved New Mexico residents, local law enforcement officers, and the U.S. military, the latter of whom allegedly collected physical evidence from the UFO crash site.
  • The Mantell UFO incident January 7, 1948
  • The Betty and Barney Hill abduction (1961) was the first reported abduction incident.
  • In the Kecksburg UFO incident, Pennsylvania (1965), residents reported seeing a bell shaped object crash in the area. Police officers, and possibly military personnel, were sent to investigate.
  • The Travis Walton abduction case (1975): The movie Fire in the Sky (1993) was based on this event, but greatly embellished the original account.
  • The "Phoenix Lights" March 13, 1997
  • 2006 O'Hare International Airport UFO sighting

Canada

In Canada, the Department of National Defence has dealt with reports, sightings and investigations of UFOs across Canada. In addition to conducting investigations into crop circles in Duhamel, Alberta, it still considers "unsolved" the Falcon Lake incident in Manitoba and the Shag Harbour UFO incident in Nova Scotia.[56]

Early Canadian studies included Project Magnet (1950–1954) and Project Second Storey (1952–1954), supported by the Defence Research Board.

France

On March 2007, the French space agency CNES published an archive of UFO sightings and other phenomena online.[57]

French studies include GEPAN/SEPRA/GEIPAN (1977–), within CNES (French space agency), the longest ongoing government-sponsored investigation. About 22% of 6000 cases studied remain unexplained.[58] The official opinion of GEPAN/SEPRA/GEIPAN has been neutral, stating on their FAQ page that their mission is fact-finding for the scientific community, not rendering an opinion. They add they can neither prove nor disprove the Exterrestrial Hypothesis (ETH), but their Steering Committee's clear position is that they cannot discard the possibility that some fraction of the very strange 22% of unexplained cases might be due to distant and advanced civilizations.[59] Possibly their bias may be indicated by their use of the terms "PAN" (French) or "UAP" (English equivalent) for "Unidentified Aerospace Phenomenon" (whereas "UAP" as normally used by English organizations stands for "Unidentified Aerial Phenomenon", a more neutral term). In addition, the three heads of the studies have gone on record in stating that UFOs were real physical flying machines beyond our knowledge or that the best explanation for the most inexplicable cases was an extraterrestrial one.[60][61][62]

In 2008, Michel Scheller, president of the Association Aéronautique et Astronautique de France (3AF), created the Sigma Commission. Its purpose was to investigate UFO phenomenon worldwide.[63] A progress report published in May 2010 stated that the central hypothesis proposed by the COMETA report is perfectly credible.[64] In December 2012, the final report of the Sigma Commission was submitted to Scheller. Following the submission of the final report, the Sigma2 Commission is to be formed with a mandate to continue the scientific investigation of UFO phenomenon.[65][66]

The most notable cases of UFO sightings in France include the Valensole UFO incident in 1965, and the Trans-en-Provence Case in 1981.

Italy

According to some Italian ufologists, the first documented case of a UFO sighting in Italy dates back to April 11, 1933, to Varese. Documents of the time show that an alleged UFO crashed or landed near Vergiate. Following this, Benito Mussolini created a secret group to look at it, called Cabinet RS/33.[67][68]

Alleged UFO sightings gradually increased since the war, peaking in 1978 and 2005. The total number of sightings since 1947 are 18,500, of which 90% are identifiable.[69]

In 2000, Italian ufologist Roberto Pinotti published material regarding the so-called "Fascist UFO Files", which dealt with a flying saucer that had crashed near Milan in 1933 (some 14 years before the Roswell, New Mexico, crash), and of the subsequent investigation by a never mentioned before Cabinet RS/33, that allegedly was authorized by Benito Mussolini, and headed by the Nobel scientist Guglielmo Marconi. A spaceship was allegedly stored in the hangars of the SIAI Marchetti in Vergiate near Milan.[70]

Julius Obsequens was a Roman writer who is believed to have lived in the middle of the fourth century AD. The only work associated with his name is the Liber de prodigiis (Book of Prodigies), completely extracted from an epitome, or abridgment, written by Livy; De prodigiis was constructed as an account of the wonders and portents that occurred in Rome between 249 BC-12 BC. An aspect of Obsequens' work that has inspired much interest in some circles is that references are made to things moving through the sky. These have been interpreted as reports of UFOs, but may just as well describe meteors, and, since Obsequens, probably, writes in the 4th century, that is, some 400 years after the events he describes, they hardly qualify as eye-witness accounts.[71][72]

Notable cases

  • A UFO sighting in Florence, October 28, 1954, followed by a fall of angel hair.[73]
  • In 1973, an Alitalia airplane left Rome for Naples sighted a mysterious round object. Two Italian Air Force planes from Ciampino confirmed the sighting.[74] In the same year there was another sighting at Caselle airport near Turin.[75]
  • In 1978, two young hikers, while walking on Monte Musinè near Turin, saw a bright light; one of them temporarily disappeared and, after a while, was found in a state of shock and with a noticeable scald on one leg. After regaining consciousness, he reported having seen an elongated vehicle and that some strangely shaped beings descended from it. Both the young hikers suffered from conjunctivitis for some time.[76]
  • A close encounter reported in September 1978 in Torrita di Siena in the Province of Siena. A young motorist saw in front of him a bright object, two beings of small stature who wore suits and helmets, the two approached the car, and after watching it carefully went back and rose again to the UFO. A boy who lived with his family in a country house not far from there said he had seen at the same time "a kind of small reddish sun".[77]
  • Yet in 1978, there has been also the story of Pier Fortunato Zanfretta, the best known and most controversial case of an Italian alleged alien abduction. Zanfretta said to have been kidnapped on the night of 6 December and 7 December while he was performing his job at Marzano, in the municipality of Torriglia in the Province of Genoa;[78] 52 testimonies of the case from other people were collected.[78]

United Kingdom

The UK's Flying Saucer Working Party published its final report in June 1951, which remained secret for over 50 years. The Working Party concluded that all UFO sightings could be explained as misidentifications of ordinary objects or phenomena, optical illusions, psychological misperceptions/aberrations, or hoaxes. The report stated: "We accordingly recommend very strongly that no further investigation of reported mysterious aerial phenomena be undertaken, unless and until some material evidence becomes available."[79]

Eight file collections on UFO sightings, dating from 1978 to 1987, were first released on May 14, 2008, to The National Archives by the Ministry of Defence (MoD).[80] Although kept secret from the public for many years, most of the files have low levels of classification and none are classified Top Secret. 200 files are set to be made public by 2012. The files are correspondence from the public sent to the British government and officials, such as the MoD and Margaret Thatcher. The MoD released the files under the Freedom of Information Act due to requests from researchers.[81] These files include, but are not limited to, UFOs over Liverpool and the Waterloo Bridge in London.[82]

On October 20, 2008, more UFO files were released. One case released detailed that in 1991 an Alitalia passenger aircraft was approaching London Heathrow Airport when the pilots saw what they described as a "cruise missile" fly extremely close to the cockpit. The pilots believed that a collision was imminent. UFO expert David Clarke says that this is one of the most convincing cases for a UFO he has come across.[83]

A secret study of UFOs was undertaken for the Ministry of Defence between 1996 and 2000 and was code-named Project Condign. The resulting report, titled "Unidentified Aerial Phenomena in the UK Defence Region", was publicly released in 2006, but the identity and credentials of whomever constituted Project Condign remains classified. The report confirmed earlier findings that the main causes of UFO sightings are misidentification of man-made and natural objects. The report noted: "No artefacts of unknown or unexplained origin have been reported or handed to the UK authorities, despite thousands of Unidentified Aerial Phenomena reports. There are no SIGINT, ELINT or radiation measurements and little useful video or still IMINT." It concluded: "There is no evidence that any UAP, seen in the UKADR [UK Air Defence Region], are incursions by air-objects of any intelligent (extraterrestrial or foreign) origin, or that they represent any hostile intent." A little-discussed conclusion of the report was that novel meteorological plasma phenomenon akin to ball lightning are responsible for "the majority, if not all" of otherwise inexplicable sightings, especially reports of black triangle UFOs.[84]

On December 1, 2009, the Ministry of Defence quietly closed down its UFO investigations unit. The unit's hotline and email address were suspended by the MoD on that date. The MoD said there was no value in continuing to receive and investigate sightings in a release, stating

in over fifty years, no UFO report has revealed any evidence of a potential threat to the United Kingdom. The MoD has no specific capability for identifying the nature of such sightings. There is no Defence benefit in such investigation and it would be an inappropriate use of defence resources. Furthermore, responding to reported UFO sightings diverts MoD resources from tasks that are relevant to Defence."

The Guardian reported that the MoD claimed the closure would save the Ministry around £50,000 a year. The MoD said that it would continue to release UFO files to the public through The National Archives.[85]

Notable cases

According to records released on August 5, 2010, British wartime prime minister Winston Churchill banned the reporting for 50 years of an alleged UFO incident because of fears it could create mass panic. Reports given to Churchill asserted that the incident involved a Royal Air Force (RAF) reconnaissance aircraft returning from a mission in France or Germany toward the end of World War II. It was over or near the English coastline when it was allegedly intercepted by a strange metallic object that matched the aircraft's course and speed for a time before accelerating away and disappearing. The aircraft's crew were reported to have photographed the object, which they said had "hovered noiselessly" near the aircraft, before moving off.[86] According to the documents, details of the coverup emerged when a man wrote to the government in 1999 seeking to find out more about the incident and described how his grandfather, who had served with the RAF in the war, was present when Churchill and U.S. General Dwight D. Eisenhower discussed how to deal with the UFO encounter.[87][88] The files come from more than 5,000 pages of UFO reports, letters and drawings from members of the public, as well as questions raised in Parliament. They are available to download from The National Archives website.[80]

In the April 1957 West Freugh incident in Scotland, named after the principal military base involved, two unidentified objects flying high over the UK were tracked by radar operators. The objects were reported to operate at speeds and perform maneuvers beyond the capability of any known craft. Also significant is their alleged size, which – based on the radar returns – was closer to that of a ship than an aircraft.

In the Rendlesham Forest incident of December 1980, U.S. military personnel witnessed UFOs near the air base at Woodbridge, Suffolk, over a period of three nights. On one night the deputy base commander, Colonel Charles I. Halt, and other personnel followed one or more UFOs that were moving in and above the forest for several hours. Col. Halt made an audio recording while this was happening and subsequently wrote an official memorandum summarizing the incident. After retirement from the military, he said that he had deliberately downplayed the event (officially termed 'Unexplained Lights') to avoid damaging his career. Other base personnel are said to have observed one of the UFOs, which had landed in the forest, and even gone up to and touched it.

Uruguay

The Uruguayan Air Force has conducted UFO investigations since 1989 and reportedly analyzed 2,100 cases of which they regard approximately 2% as lacking explanation.[89]

Astronomer reports

The USAF's Project Blue Book files indicate that approximately 1%[90] of all unknown reports came from amateur and professional astronomers or other users of telescopes (such as missile trackers or surveyors). In 1952, astronomer J. Allen Hynek, then a consultant to Blue Book, conducted a small survey of 45 fellow professional astronomers. Five reported UFO sightings (about 11%). In the 1970s, astrophysicist Peter A. Sturrock conducted two large surveys of the AIAA and American Astronomical Society (AAS). About 5% of the members polled indicated that they had had UFO sightings.

Astronomer Clyde Tombaugh, who admitted to six UFO sightings, including three green fireballs, supported the Extraterrestrial hypothesis for UFOs and stated he thought scientists who dismissed it without study were being "unscientific." Another astronomer was Lincoln LaPaz, who had headed the Air Force's investigation into the green fireballs and other UFO phenomena in New Mexico. LaPaz reported two personal sightings, one of a green fireball, the other of an anomalous disc-like object. (Both Tombaugh and LaPaz were part of Hynek's 1952 survey.) Hynek himself took two photos through the window of a commercial airliner of a disc-like object that seemed to pace his aircraft.[91]

In 1980, a survey of 1800 members of various amateur astronomer associations by Gert Helb and Hynek for CUFOS found that 24% responded "yes" to the question "Have you ever observed an object which resisted your most exhaustive efforts at identification?"[92]

Claims of increase in reports

MUFON reports that UFO sightings to their offices have increased by 67% in the previous three years as of 2011. According to MUFON international director Clifford Clift in 2011, "Over the past year, we've been averaging 500 sighting reports a month, compared to about 300 three years ago [67 percent],".[93][94]

According to the annual survey of reports conducted by Canadian-based UFO research group Ufology Research, reported UFO sightings doubled in Canada between 2011 and 2012.[95][96]

In 2013 the Peruvian government's Departamento de Investigación de Fenómenos Aéreos Anómalos (Anomalous Aerial Phenomena Research Department), or "DIFAA", was officially reactivated due to an increase in reported sightings. According to Colonel Julio Vucetich, head of the air force's aerospace interests division who himself claims to have seen an "anomalous aerial object", "On a personal basis, it's evident to me that we are not alone in this world or universe."[97][98]

In contrast, according to the UK-based Association for the Scientific Study of Anomalous Phenomena (ASSAP), reports of sightings in Britain to their office have declined by 96% since 1988.[99]

Identification of UFOs

Main article: Identification studies of UFOs

Studies show that after careful investigation, the majority of UFOs can be identified as ordinary objects or phenomena. The most commonly found identified sources of UFO reports are:

  • Astronomical objects (bright stars, planets, meteors, re-entering man-made spacecraft, artificial satellites, and the Moon)
  • Aircraft (aerial advertising and other aircraft, missilelaunches)
  • Balloons (toy balloons, weather balloons, large research balloons)
  • Other atmospheric objects and phenomena (birds, unusual clouds, kites, flares)
  • Light phenomena mirages, Fata Morgana, ball lightning, moon dogs, searchlights and other ground lights, etc.
  • Hoaxes

A 1952–1955 study by the Battelle Memorial Institute for the USAF included these categories as well as a "psychological" one.

An individual 1979 study by CUFOS researcher Allan Hendry found, as did other investigations, that only a small percentage of cases he investigated were hoaxes (<1 %) and that most sightings were actually honest misidentifications of prosaic phenomena. Hendry attributed most of these to inexperience or misperception.[101]

Claims by military, government, and aviation personnel

Since 2001 there have been calls for greater openness on the part of the government by various persons. In May 2001, a press conference was held at the National Press Club in Washington, D.C., by an organization called the Disclosure Project, featuring twenty persons including retired Air Force and FAA personnel, intelligence officers and an air traffic controller.[102][103][104][105][106][107][108] They all gave a brief account of what they knew or had witnessed, and stated that they would be willing to testify to what they had said under oath to a Congressional committee. According to a 2002 report in the Oregon Daily Emerald, Disclosure Project founder Steven M. Greer has gathered 120 hours of testimony from various government officials on the topic of UFOs, including astronaut Gordon Cooper and a Brigadier General.[109]

In 2007, former Arizona governor Fife Symington came forward and belatedly claimed that he had seen "a massive, delta-shaped craft silently navigate over Squaw Peak, a mountain range in Phoenix, Arizona" in 1997.[110]

On September 27, 2010, a group of six former USAF officers and one former enlisted Air Force man held a press conference at the National Press Club in Washington, D.C., on the theme "U.S. Nuclear Weapons Have Been Compromised by Unidentified Aerial Objects."[111] They told how they had witnessed UFOs hovering near missile sites and even disarming the missiles.

From April 29 to May 3, 2013, the Paradigm Research Group held the "Citizen Hearing on Disclosure" at the National Press Club. The group paid former U.S. Senator Mike Gravel and former Representatives Carolyn Cheeks Kilpatrick, Roscoe Bartlett, Merrill Cook, Darlene Hooley, and Lynn Woolsey $20,000 each to hear testimony from a panel of researchers which included witnesses from military, agency, and political backgrounds.[112][113]

Apollo 14 astronaut Dr Edgar Mitchell claimed that he knew of senior government employees who had been involved in "close encounters" and because of this he has no doubt that aliens have visited Earth.[114]

Main article: Extraterrestrial hypothesis

While technically a UFO refers to any unidentified flying object, in modern popular culture the term UFO has generally become synonymous with alien spacecraft;[115] however, the term ETV (ExtraTerrestrial Vehicle) is sometimes used to separate this explanation of UFOs from totally earthbound explanations.[116]

Associated claims

Besides anecdotal visual sightings, reports sometimes include claims of other kinds of evidence, including cases studied by the military and various government agencies of different countries (such as Project Blue Book, the Condon Committee, the French GEPAN/SEPRA, and Uruguay's current Air Force study).

A comprehensive scientific review of cases where physical evidence was available was carried out by the 1998 Sturrock panel, with specific examples of many of the categories listed below.[117][118][119]

  • Radar contact and tracking, sometimes from multiple sites. These have included military personnel and control tower operators, simultaneous visual sightings, and aircraft intercepts. One such example were the mass sightings of large, silent, low-flying black triangles in 1989 and 1990 over Belgium, tracked by NATO radar and jet interceptors, and investigated by Belgium's military (included photographic evidence).[120] Another famous case from 1986 was the Japan Air Lines flight 1628 incident over Alaska investigated by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).
  • Photographic evidence, including still photos, movie film, and video.
  • Claims of physical trace of landing UFOs, including ground impressions, burned or desiccated soil, burned and broken foliage, magnetic anomalies[specify], increased radiation levels, and metallic traces. (See, e. g. Height 611 UFO incident or the 1964 Lonnie Zamora's Socorro, New Mexico encounter of the USAF Project Blue Book cases.) A well-known example from December 1980 was the USAF Rendlesham Forest incident in England. Another occurred in January 1981 in Trans-en-Provence and was investigated by GEPAN, then France's official government UFO-investigation agency. Project Blue Book head Edward J. Ruppelt described a classic 1952 CE2 case involving a patch of charred grass roots.
  • Physiological effects on people and animals including temporary paralysis, skin burns and rashes, corneal burns, and symptoms superficially resembling radiation poisoning, such as the Cash-Landrum incident in 1980.
  • Animal/cattle mutilation cases, that some feel are also part of the UFO phenomenon.
  • Biological effects on plants such as increased or decreased growth, germination effects on seeds, and blown-out stem nodes (usually associated with physical trace cases or crop circles)
  • Electromagnetic interference (EM) effects. A famous 1976 military case over Tehran, recorded in CIA and DIA classified documents, was associated with communication losses in multiple aircraft and weapons system failure in an F-4 Phantom II jet interceptor as it was about to fire a missile on one of the UFOs.[121]
  • Apparent remote radiation detection, some noted in FBI and CIA documents occurring over government nuclear installations at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1950, also reported by Project Blue Book director Edward J. Ruppelt in his book.
  • Claimed artifacts of UFOs themselves, such as 1957, Ubatuba, Brazil, magnesium fragments analyzed by the Brazilian government and in the Condon Report and by others. The 1964 Lonnie Zamora incident also left metal traces, analyzed by NASA.[122][123] A more recent example involves a tear drop-shaped object recovered by Bob White and was featured in a television episode of UFO Hunters.[124]
  • Angel hair and angel grass, possibly explained in some cases as nests from ballooning spiders or chaff.[citation needed]

Ufology

Main article: Ufology

Ufology is a neologism describing the collective efforts of those who study UFO reports and associated evidence.

Researchers

Main article: List of ufologists

Sightings

Main article: List of reported UFO sightings

Organizations

Main article: List of UFO organizations

Categorization

Some ufologists recommend that observations be classified according to the features of the phenomenon or object that are reported or recorded. Typical categories include:

  • Saucer, toy-top, or disk-shaped "craft" without visible or audible propulsion.
  • Large triangular "craft" or triangular light pattern, usually reported at night.
  • Cigar-shaped "craft" with lighted windows (meteor fireballs are sometimes reported this way, but are very different phenomena).
  • Other: chevrons, (equilateral) triangles, crescent, boomerangs, spheres (usually reported to be shining, glowing at night), domes, diamonds, shapeless black masses, eggs, pyramids and cylinders, classic "lights."

Popular UFO classification systems include the Hynek system, created by J. Allen Hynek, and the Vallée system, created by Jacques Vallée.[citation needed]

Hynek's system involves dividing the sighted object by appearance, subdivided further into the type of "close encounter" (a term from which the film director Steven Spielberg derived the title of his 1977 UFO movie, Close Encounters of the Third Kind).

Jacques Vallée's system classifies UFOs into five broad types, each with from three to five subtypes that vary according to type.

Scientific skepticism

Artist's conception of a flying saucer exiting from water.
Fata Morgana, a type of mirage in which objects located below the astronomical horizon appear to be hovering in the sky just above the horizon, may be responsible for some UFO sightings. (Here, the shape floating above the horizon is the reflected image of a boat.) Fata Morgana can also distort the appearance of distant objects, sometimes making them unrecognizable[100]
Lenticular clouds have in some cases been reported as UFOs due to their peculiar shape
Photograph of "an unusual atmospheric occurrence observed over Sri Lanka", forwarded to the UK Ministry of Defence by RAF Fylingdales, 2004

A UFO Bibliography

Copyright 1995, 1996 by Charles McGrew. This document may be used freely, but this copyright notice must remain.

by Charles Mcgrew (mcgrew@cs.rutgers.edu)

Last updated: 21 August, 2000.

This bibliography is excerpted from one done for the now-inactive Internet mailing list "UFO-L" by myself, Keith Rowell, Biran Patterson, Timothy Buck, Garry Trujillo and 'CCB104 'at Penn State. Comments are in brackets -- those prefaced by a "KR:" are by Keith Rowell, all others are by myself. Publication information is either from the book itself or from one of several on-line card catalogs. As you will see, they range from the fairly goofy to the pretty useful. Ones I think are good for the serious researcher are marked with [Recommended]. But that's just my opinion. A number of these books can be found in good libraries; some are issued (or reissued) in paperback, and some you'll just have to haunt used-book stores -- or used-book mail-order companies -- in hopes of one turning up.


Additionally, the following people have added to the bibliographic list: Chris Beetle (afn15317@afn.org) and Murray Bott (murrayb@kiwi.gen.nz). Their comments are appropriately credited.

If you have contributions to this list (new books, or reviews), please mail them to mcgrew@info.rutgers.edu. When giving book information, please be as complete as possible, including ISBN number, publisher name, city, etc.


AUTHOR: Adamski, George (& Desmond Leslie).
TITLE: Flying Saucers Have Landed. (Revised Edition).
PUBLISH DATE: 1953/1970.

AUTHOR: Adamski, George.
TITLE: Inside the Spaceships.
PUBLISH DATE: 1956.

AUTHOR: Adamski, George.
TITLE: Flying Saucers Farewell.
PUBLISH DATE: 1961.

AUTHOR: Adamski, George.
TITLE: Many Mansions.
PUBLISH DATE: 1974.

AUTHOR: Adler, Bill, Edited by Jay David.
TITLE: Flying saucers have arrived!
PUBLISHER New York, World Pub. Co. [1970]

AUTHOR: Adler, Bill, Edited By.
TITLE: Letter To The Air Force On Ufos.
PUBLISH DATE: 1967.

AUTHOR: Alford, Alan F.
TITLE: Gods Of The New Millennium.
PUBLISH DATE: 1996

AUTHOR: Allan, Bob.
TITLE: The Saucer Seeker.
PUBLISH DATE: 1967.

AUTHOR: Allen, Wm Gordon.
TITLE: Spacecraft From Beyond Three Dimensions.
PUBLISH DATE: 1959.

AUTHOR: Allen, Wm Gordon.
TITLE: Overlords And Olympians.
PUBLISH DATE: 1974.

AUTHOR: Allingham, Cedric.
TITLE: Flying Saucers From Mars.
PUBLISH DATE: 1954.

AUTHOR: Amery, Colin.
TITLE: New Atlantis. The Secret Of The Sphinx.
PUBLISH DATE: 1976.

AUTHOR: Anderson, Carl.
TITLE: Two Nights To Remember.
PUBLISH DATE: 1956.

AUTHOR: Andrews, Colin. (& Pat Delgado).
TITLE: Circular Evidence.
PUBLISH DATE: 1989.

AUTHOR: Andrews, Colin. (& Pat Delgado).
TITLE: Crop Circles. The Latest Evidence.
PUBLISH DATE: 1990.

AUTHOR: Andrews, George C.
TITLE: Extraterrestrials Among Us
PUBLISHER Llewellyn Publications, St. Paul Minnesota, 1992
338 p., TL789.A58, ISBN 0-987542-001-X

AUTHOR: Andrus, Jr. Walter H.
TITLE: MUFON Field Investigator's Manual
PUBLISHER 4th edition, Seguin, TX: MUFON 1995
[In addition to the MUFON Training Guide, a very good (if pricey) place for serious UFO researchers to start learning what it takes. Ethics, what equipment you need, report writing, commonly seen (but non-strange) flying objects, star charts, evaluating eyewitness testimony, photographic analysis, dealing with the media, crop circles, hypnotherapy, and more.]

AUTHOR: Arnold, Kenneth (& Ray Palmer).
TITLE: The Coming Of The Saucers.
PUBLISH DATE: 1952.

AUTHOR: Ashpole, Edward.
TITLE: The Search For Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence.
PUBLISH DATE: 1989.

AUTHOR: Augustus, Petrus.
TITLE: At Last The Chariots Message.
PUBLISH DATE: Unknown

AUTHOR: Bailey, Alfred C. (& George Hunt Williamson).
TITLE: The Saucers Speak.
PUBLISH DATE: 1954.

AUTHOR: Baker, Douglas M., Dr
TITLE: The Occult Significance Of U.F.O'S.
PUBLISH DATE: 1979.

AUTHOR: Ball, Brian.
TITLE: A Young Persons Guide To Ufos.
PUBLISH DATE: 1979.

AUTHOR: Barclay, David And Therese Marie. Edited By.
TITLE: Ufos The Final Answer.
PUBLISH DATE: 1993.

AUTHOR: Barker, Bill
TITLE: Schwa
PUBLISHER Reno, NV, Schwa Press, 1991
[If reading up on UFOs gets you down, pick up this collection of bizzaro, slightly disturbing cartoons loosely based around the abduction phenomena. They're ok, but the accessories are a scream - the plastic-coated "Instant Stick Figure", with handy neck-chain, and instructions for use: "1 . Whisper instructions to stick figure; 2. Hold stick figure in water for 30 seconds (do not allow stick person to get wet), 3. Release all staples [there are a couple of staples that appear to "hold the figure down" on the plastic], 4. Allow your stick person to help you.". The "Alien Invasion Survival Card" -- "In Case of Abduction: 1. Remain where you are, 2. Give or do whatever they ask. 3. Forget everything that happens." There's more, but I won't spoil it for you -- just don't send me any of the postcards that come with it, ok? All right one more: A bumper sticker (for your car), with a "grey alien" head, and the slogan "EVERY PICTURE TELLS A LIE!" It's a little off balance, it's a lot of amusing, and it's a stiff pricetag - who could ask for anything more?]

AUTHOR: Barker, Gray.
TITLE: They Knew Too Much About Flying Saucers.
PUBLISH DATE: 1956.

AUTHOR: Barker, Gray. Edited By.
TITLE: The Strange Case Of Dr. M. K. Jessup.
PUBLISH DATE: 1963.

AUTHOR: Barker, Gray.
TITLE: Gray Barker'S Book Of Saucers.
PUBLISH DATE: 1965.

AUTHOR: Barker, Gray.
TITLE: The Silver Bridge.
PUBLISH DATE: 1970.

AUTHOR: Barker, Gray.
TITLE: Gray Barker At Giant Rock.
PUBLISH DATE: 1976.

AUTHOR: Barker, Gray.
TITLE: Gray Barker'S Ufo Annual 81.
PUBLISH DATE: 1982.

AUTHOR: Barker, Gray.
TITLE: M.I.B. The Secret Terror Among As.
PUBLISH DATE: 1983.

AUTHOR: Barker, Gray. The Year Of The Saucer.
TITLE: Gray Barker'S Ufo Annual -1983.
PUBLISH DATE: 1983.

AUTHOR: Barker, Gray.
TITLE: The Year Of The Saucer. Gray Barker'S Ufo Annual -1983.
PUBLISH DATE: 1983.

AUTHOR: Barker, Gray.
TITLE: Gray Barker'S Book Of Adamski.
PUBLISH DATE: 19??.

AUTHOR: Barker, Gray.
TITLE: Flying Saucers At Edwards Afb.
PUBLISH DATE: 19??.

AUTHOR: Barry, Bill.
TITLE: Ultimate Encounter.
PUBLISH DATE: 1978.

AUTHOR: Barclay, David and Barclay, Therese Marie, eds.
TITLE: UFOs The Final Answer
PUBLISHER: London: Blandford Books, 1993, 192 pp, index.
ISBN: 0-7137-2362-9 (pbk)

AUTHOR: Barry, James Dale
TITLE: Ball Lightning and Bead Lightning
PUBLISHER Plenum Press, 1980

AUTHOR: Bartholomew, Alick.
TITLE: Crop Circles - Harbingers Of World Change.
PUBLISH DATE: 1991.

AUTHOR: Basterfield, Keith.
TITLE: Close Encounters Of An Australian Kind.
PUBLISH DATE: 1981.

AUTHOR: Baxter, John and Tomas Atkins.
TITLE: The Fire Came By.
PUBLISH DATE: 1976.

AUTHOR: Beckley, Timothy Green.
TITLE: MJ-12 and the Riddle of Hangar 18
PUBLISHER New Brunswick, N.J. : Inner Light Publications, 1989.
['Inner Light' is an organization that advertises in the Weekly World News, among other places. In addition to UFO's, they do "new age" stuff. Mr. Beckley calls himself "Mr. UFO", btw. Inner Light is, however, one of the few places you can find a number hard-to-find and some ultra-way-out UFO books. Arcturus Books is another.]

AUTHOR: Beckley, Tim with Milt Machlin.
TITLE: Ufo.
PUBLISH DATE: 1981.

AUTHOR: Beckley, Timothy Green
TITLE: Strange Encounters
PUBLISH DATE: 1992.

AUTHOR: Bell, Dr Fred.
TITLE: Pleidian Science And New Age Technology.
PUBLISH DATE: unknown

AUTHOR: Bender, Albert K.
TITLE: Flying Saucers And The Three Men.
PUBLISH DATE: 1963.

AUTHOR: Berlitz, Charles and William L. Moore
TITLE: The Roswell Incident. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1980.
168pp. ISBN 0-448-21199-8.
[ Mr. Berlitz writes extensively on paranormal subjects, including Bermuda Triangle, and others. However, it would appear that at least some of this is right. ('UFO Crash at Roswell' and "The Truth. . ." are the better books on this subject.) "Roswell Incident" has recently been reissued in paperback.]

AUTHOR: Berger, Melvin.
TITLE: UFOs, ETS & visitors from space
New York : Putnam, c1988.
79 p. : ill. ; 22 cm. Includes index.
Summary: Discusses the possibility of life on other planets, describes some of the best known sightings of unidentified flying objects in recent times, and speculates about possible visits to Earth made by extraterrestrials.
CALL #: 001.9 B453uf

AUTHOR: Blum, Howard, 1948-
TITLE: Out there : the government's secret quest for extraterrestrials
PUBLISHER New York : Simon and Schuster, c1990.
[Very readable book. Takes a long side-trip into the SETI project (though if you're interested in that, it's worth it.) Details Bill Moore's shenanigans on behalf of AFOSI, and the story of how the MJ-12 documents came to light . Proports to have discovered a high-level UFO study group currently active inside the military. Released in paperback.]

AUTHOR: Blundell, Nigel-
TITLE: The World's Most Amazing UFO Visits
PUBLISHER London : Sunburst Books, c1996, ISBN 1-85778-158-9.

AUTHOR: Bourret, J.-C.
TITLE: The Crack in the Universe
Spearman, 1977

AUTHOR: Bova, Ben, and Preiss, Byron, ed.
TITLE: First Contact: The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence
NAL Books - Penguin Group, New York, 1990
QB54 F48 1990
[A survey of how the 'mainstream' scientific and political establishment view the possibility of ETI, (that is, it completely ignores the UFO 'genre'; the most radical organization listed in its appendix is the Planetary Society), with some speculative fiction and non-fiction thrown in for good measure. A good book for a general introduction to current intelligent-life-not-of-this-earth thought. Several articles on the SETI project.]

AUTHOR: Bowen, Charles (ed.)
TITLE: The Humanoids
Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1969 256pp LC 77-126142
[KR: Good summary of the evidence compiled from material published in the British Flying Saucer Review magazine.]

AUTHOR: Brown, Courtney
TITLE: Cosmic Voyage: A Scientific Discovery of Extraterrestrials Visiting Earth
PUBLISHER New York: Dutton (Penguin Group), 1996, 275pp ISBN 0-525-04098-7
[First part is a good overview of what "remote viewing" is (or may be), and research into it. The rest of the book is more directly connected with the author's view of extraterrestrials, where they are, etc.]

AUTHOR: Brunstein, Karl A.
TITLE: Beyond the four dimensions : reconciling physics, parapsychology, and UFOs
PUBLISHER New York : Walker, 1979.

AUTHOR: Byran, C.D.B
TITLE: Close Encounters of the Fourth Kind: Alien Abductions, UFO's, and the Conference at MIT
PUBLISHER New York, Albert A. Knopf, 1995
[A journalist looks at reported abductions, using the June 1992 MIT conference as a starting point. Good survey, with good interviews of abductees.]

AUTHOR: Bullard, Thomas Edward
TITLE: UFO Abductions: The Measure of a Mystery. Vol. 1: Comparative Study of Abduction Reports.
(Bloomington, IND): Fund for UFO Research, 1987. 402pp.
[KR: This study by a PhD folklorist is must reading for anyone wanting to understand the depth and breadth of the abduction enigma. Bullard concludes UFO abduction stories are much too internally consistent down to small details to be classed as traditional folklore or typical dream material.]

AUTHOR: Burt, Eugene H., 1927-
TITLE: UFO's and diamagnetism; correlations of UFO and scientific observations
New York, Exposition Press [1970]
134 p. illus. 21 cm. An Exposition-university book
Includes bibliographical references.
CALL #: TL789 .B9

AUTHOR: Butler, Brenda, Dot Street, and Jenny Randles.
TITLE: Sky Crash: A Cosmic Conspiracy.
Sudbury, Great Britain: Neville Spearman, 1984. 283pp. ISBN 85435-155-8.
[KR: Review and analysis of the facts in the British Bentwaters-Rendlesham RAFB case.]

AUTHOR: Campbell, Glenn
TITLE: "Area 51" Viewer's Guide
PUBLISHER Rachel, NV: Glenn Campbell, 1994
[Although the 'best seats in the house' for the base-that-isn't-there have been grabbed by the USAF (didn't you know?), this is still the best guide I've seen to the wheres, the whats, and maybe even the whys of the reputed "ufo technology testing center" at Groom Lake, in Nevada. What to take (water, spare tires), what to look for (some "ufos" are flights of "Janet" 737 aircraft,ferrying civilian employees from Las Vegas), references, Bob Lazar, and more. Nice breezy style of writing.]

AUTHOR: Canadeo, Anne
TITLE: UFO's: The Fact or Fiction Files
PUBLISHER New York: Walker and Company, 1990.

AUTHOR: Catoe, Lynn E.
TITLE: UFOs and related subjects : an annotated bibliography
PUBLISHER Detroit : Gale Research Co., 1978.

AUTHOR: Cazeau, Charles J. and Stuart D. Scott, Jr.
TITLE: Exploring the unknown : great mysteries reexamined
PUBLISHER New York : Plenum Press, c1979.

AUTHOR: Clark, Jerome.
TITLE: The UFO Encyclopedia, Volume 1: UFOs in the 1980s
PUBLISHER Detroit, Mich.: Apogee Books, c1990.
[KR: This encyclopedia is mostly the author's tour de force, but still delivers valuable information not easily available elsewhere. Libraries should have this.]

AUTHOR: Clark, Jerome.
TITLE: The UFO Encyclopedia, Volume 2: The Emergence of a Phenomenon: UFOs from the Beginning through 1959.
PUBLISHER Detroit, Mi : Omnigraphics, 1992, 433pp. ISBN 1-55888-301-0
[KR: The second volume of this fine work is must reading for those desiring real understanding of UFOs.]

AUTHOR: Clark, Jerome and Coleman, Loren
TITLE: The Unidentified
Warner, 1975

AUTHOR: Clark, Jerome
TITLE: The UFO Book: Encyclopedia of the Extraterrestrial
PUBLISHER: New Yoek, Visible Ink, 1998
698 pages, plus index. ISBN 1-57859-029-9
Abridgement of Clark's two-volume "UFO Encyclopedia" (see above)

AUTHOR: Cohen, Daniel.
TITLE: The ancient visitors
PUBLISHER Garden City, N.Y. : Doubleday, c1976.
[Another refutation-of-von-Daniken book, which also attempts to pour shame on most of the UFO 'believers' by misrepresenting their views and then scorning them. 'Space-Gods Revealed' is better.]

AUTHOR: Colombo, John Robert.
TITLE: UFOs Over Canada: Personal Accounts of Sightings and Close Encounters.
PUBLISHER: Willowdale, Ontario, Canada: Hounslow Press, 1991
221pp. ISBN 0-88882-138-7
[KR: A nice book by a famous Canadian compiler of Canadiana of short UFO accounts mostly in the words of the witnesses themselves.]

AUTHOR: Condon, Edward U. and Daniel S. Gillmor (ed.).
TITLE: Final Report of the Scientific Study of Unidentified Flying Objects
(Conducted by the University of Colorado Under Contract to the United States Air Force). New York: Bantam
Books, 1968. 965pp.
[KR: After close, competent study of over 100 UFO sighting reports, 30% couldn't be identified! Read Condon's prejudiced introduction only after you have looked through the rest of the study. The National Academy of Sciences rubber-stamped Condon's recommendations that no public funds be devoted to the study of UFOs.]

[This is the infamous 'Condon Report' that allowed the USAF to close Project BlueBook. Condon's group split rather violently over the group leader's bias (especially when a U-Colorado memo written before the project was even begun came to light that can be read as more or less directing a 'no' verdict). For another view of the Condon group, see also 'UFOs? Yes!', by David Saunders, who was one of Condon's group -- before he resigned after the memo-fiasco.]

AUTHOR: Conroy, Ed
TITLE: Report on Communion: An Independent Investigation of and Commentary on Whitley Strieber's Communion.
PUBLISHER: New York: Morrow, 1989. 427pp. ISBN 0-688-08864-3.
[KR: This journalist was a boyhood acquaintance of Strieber. When Strieber published Communion, Conroy decided to see if his story would hold up under an investigative journalist's scrutiny. Conroy says yes.]

AUTHOR: Corliss, William (ed.)
TITLE: Sourcebook Project
PO Box 107
Glen Arm, Maryland, 21057, USA
[Date unknown, but probably 1980's]

AUTHOR: Cooper, Milton William
TITLE: Behold A Pale Horse
PUBLISHER Sedona, AZ, Mission Possible Commercial Printing, 1991
["The Dark Side" of ufology. Mr. Cooper weaves the grandest of Grand Conspiracies. They're all in it -- the Illuminatii, the Rockefellers, the CIA , monarchists, FEMA, DEA, WHO, The Club of Rome, MJ-12, Aliens, Freemasons, Alternative-3, etc. etc. The UN is the one-world government; they intend to take us over (didn't you know?) Cooper Reprints the "Protocols of the Elders of Zion" verbatim, claiming it is a coded reference for how the (non-Zionist) grand conspiracy intends to take us over. (OK, but why print it all -- verbatim?) Pretty horrid stuff; but Mr. Cooper has a lot of company -- there are a lot of people out there who really believe all this. Paranoia is a word easily tossed around, but in this case, I fear it applies. According to Mr. Cooper, everybody who says anything bad about Mr. Cooper or his ideas is an agent of the bad guys, a moral degenerate, a criminal, or perhaps worst of all, one of the "sheep" (that's you and me, see?), whom Mr. Cooper wishes to 'awaken'. With "***TOP SECRET***" printed at the bottom of each and every page, it must be true, right? If you want to see "the dark side" (not that I particularly recommend it to anyone), this is it, all compacted into one tome. The UFO stuff is in the back.]

AUTHOR: Cousineau, Phil
TITLE: UFOs: A Manual for the Millenium
TITLE: (also published as) UFO Secrets Revealed
PUBLISHER New York: HarperCollins West, c1995, ISBN 0-06-258638-6 (pbk.)

AUTHOR: Crain, T. Scott, Jr., and Grant Cameron
TITLE: UFOs, MJ-12, and the Government; A Report on an Investigation of UFO Crash Retrievals
PUBLISHER (1990) MUFON. 218+ pages; index; many letters, documents, etc.
[Unevenly written, and unevenly documented, but still interersting reading. The authors collect a number of items of recent interest in UFOlogy (MJ-12, 'The Jason Society', a reported UFO shoot-down in South Africa, Area 51, Bob Lazar, etc.) into one book. If you want to catch up on the buzz, this is a good place to start. I have some problems with their techniques (one of their investigators lied about his identity and may have something of a checkered past, for instance, but what the heck. . .]

AUTHOR: Crystall, Ellen
TITLE: Silent Invasion: The Shocking Discoveries of a UFO Researcher
PUBLISHER New York: Paragon House, 1991. 190pp. ISBN 1-55778-493-0.
[KR: A UFO researcher uses her psychic abilities to locate UFOs in the field. Interesting for showing how a scientifically naive person still understands that scientific and scholarly proof is what is needed in the end. Many hard to interpret photos accompany the text.]

AUTHOR: Curran, Douglas
TITLE: In Advance of the Landing: Folk Concepts of Outer Space
PUBLISHER: New York: Abbeville Press, 1985. 132pp. ISBN 0-89659-523-4.
[KR: Valuable photographic presentation of UFO folklore.]

AUTHOR: Davidson, Leon, 1922-
TITLE: Flying saucers: an analysis of the Air Force Project blue book special report no. 14, including the CIA and the saucers
PUBLISHER [White Plains, NY]: Blue-Book Publishers, 1976. (originally published in 1956.)

AUTHOR: Dean, John W.
TITLE: Flying Saucers Close Up
PUBLISHER Clarksburg, W. Va: Gray Barker, 1969
[A contactee book in the classic vein; very human aliens are here to save us from ourselves. They're from pretty much every planet in our solar system and more besides; they're fighting other aliens -- it's a pretty lively universe, all right! Includes details of the spacemen's language and writing. "Spacemen urged the author to compile this book, supplied much of the information and approved the work." (From the cover.) So it must be true, right?]

AUTHOR: Deardorff, James W.
TITLE: Celestial Teachings: The Emergence of the True Testament of Jmmanuel (Jesus).
PUBLISHER: Tigard, OR: Wild Flower Press, 1990. 323pp. ISBN 0-926524-11-9.
[KR: An analysis of some of the collateral material from the extensive Billy Meier contact case.]

AUTHOR: Delgado, Pat.
TITLE: Circular evidence : a detailed investigation of the flattened swirled crops phenomenon
PUBLISHER London : Bloomsbury, 1989.
[KR: The first of the picture books about crop 'circles'. It's a very good presentation of the facts and their investigative methods. Some investigators believe UFOs may produce the 'circles'.]

AUTHOR: Devereau, Paul
TITLE: Earthlights
Turnstone Press, 1982
[The "Earthlight" theory, roughly, is that natural, but unrecognized processes (for instance the releasing of plate-tectonic stress) from the earth are the root cause of UFO sightings.]

AUTHOR: Downing, Barry H., 1938-
TITLE: The Bible and flying saucers
PUBLISHER Philadelphia, Lippincott [1968]

AUTHOR: Druffel, Ann and D. Scott Rogo
TITLE: The Tujunga Canyon Contacts
PUBLISHER Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1980. 264pp. ISBN
0-13-932541-7
[KR: Good book about abduction/contact experiences.]

AUTHOR: Eberhart, George M., ed.
TITLE: Roswell Report, The: A Historical Perspective
PUBLISHER 1991 - Available from CUFOS
[A collection of articles from the International UFO Reporter (CUFOS's magazine) concerning Roswell, MJ-12, etc. Many articles written by Randle and Schmitt, authors of 'UFO Crash at Roswell'. Well written. Includes expanded timeline of Roswell events though not as complete as described in Randle and Schmitt's "The Truth...".]

AUTHOR: Eberhart, George M.
TITLE: UFOs and the extraterrestrial contact movement : a bibliography
PUBLISHER Metuchen, N.J. : Scarecrow Press, 1986.
[KR: An outstanding listing of books, articles, movies, TV appearances, dissertations, conferences, etc., about UFOs and related phenomena. No library in America should be without it. Ask your public library to get a copy today!!]

AUTHOR: Edwards, Frank
TITLE: Stranger than Science
PUBLISHER: New York: Carol Paperback Books, 1959, 1987, 303pp.
ISBN: 0-28216-2513
[The famous collector of 'strange-but-true' stories has had a book reprinted (written originally before his famous 'Flying Saucers - Serious Business') in paperback. Most of this is not ufo-related, but there are some things that impinge on it.]

AUTHOR: Edwards, Frank, 1908-1967.
TITLE: Flying saucers, serious business.
PUBLISHER New York, L. Stuart[1966]

AUTHOR: Emenegger, Robert
TITLE: UFO's: Past, Present and Future.
PUBLISHER New York: Ballantine Books, 1974. 180pp. ISBN 345-24189-4-150
[KR: Good general book. Emenegger produced a film documentary of the same name. The US government hinted that it would give him some 'real' flying saucer footage for inclusion in his film. This didn't happen.]

AUTHOR: Evans, Hilary and John Spencer (eds.) [Recommended]
TITLE: UFOs: 1947-1987 - The 40-Year Search for an Explanation
PUBLISHER London: Fortean Tomes, 1987. 384pp. ISBN 1-870021-02-9
[KR: Similar to the other book by Spencer and Evans, but more extensive. A must read for dedicated ufologists.]

AUTHOR: Evans, Hilary, 1929-
TITLE: The evidence for UFOs
PUBLISHER Wellingborough, Northamptonshire : Aquarian Press, 1983.

AUTHOR: Fawcett, Lawrence, and Barry J. Greenwood. [Highly Recommended]
TITLE: Clear intent : the government coverup of the UFO experience
PUBLISHER Englewood Cliffs, N.J. : Prentice-Hall, c1984.
REPRINTED-AS: The UFO Cover-Up -- What the Government Won't Say [KR: Very important book summarizing what ufologists know from studying the thousands of FOIA-released government UFO documents. Everything but proof of crashed flying saucers is here, and it's all from FOIA-released documents!]

[Makes for very informative reading. Fills in a lot of gaps in what the government has been doing over the UFO question (as it turns out, a lot). Good narration, good bibliography. This is from CAUS, (whom Phil Klass has dumped on a lot -- apparently in hopes you won't bother to actually read what CAUS puts out), and is a fine bit of investigation.]

AUTHOR: Fitzgerald, Randall.
TITLE: The complete book of extraterrestrial encounters: the ideas of Carl Jung, John C. Lilly, John C. Fuller and many others
PUBLISHER New York : Collier Books, c1979.

AUTHOR: Flammonde, Paris.
TITLE: The age of flying saucers; notes on a projected history of unidentified flying objects
PUBLISHER New York, Hawthorn Books [1971]

AUTHOR: Flammonde, Paris.
TITLE: UFO Exist!
PUBLISHER New York, New York: Putnam, 1976. 406pp. ISBN 399-11538-2.
[KR: Fine history of the subject from a radio producer/journalist. The book details the US government's involvement.]

AUTHOR: Foggarty, Quentin
TITLE: Let's Hope They're Friendly
Angus and Robertson, 1983

AUTHOR: Fort, Charles, 1874-1932.
TITLE: The complete books of Charles Fort / with a new introd. by Damon Knight.
PUBLISHER New York : Dover Publications, c1974.
[Charles Fort was a collector of weird and unusual information, much gleaned from newspaper stories. He published several books, which are collected here. A little hard to read, but interesting nevertheless. The term 'fortean' to refer to investigators-of-the-weird was coined in reference to him. Fort had some interesting ideas that translate well into some current ufo-isms; that the earth is actually 'owned' by non-terrestrial entities, for instance. (The works of Mr. Fort include The Book of the Damned (1919), New Lands (1923), Lo! (1931), and Wild Talents (1932)).]

AUTHOR: Fowler, Raymond E., 1933-
TITLE: The Andreasson affair
PUBLISHER Englewood Cliffs, N.J. : Prentice-Hall, c1979.
[KRl: First book about a now famous abductee, Betty Andreasson Luca.]

AUTHOR: Fowler, Raymond
TITLE: Casebook of a UFO Investigator
Prentice-Hall, 1982

AUTHOR: Frazier, Kendrick.
TITLE: Paranormal borderlands of science
PUBLISHER Buffalo, N.Y. : Prometheus Books, 1981.
[This is a book from CSICOP (the 'skeptics' version of MUFON or CUFOS) on various 'paranormal' phenomena. It's a collection of articles from all the big wheels in CSICOP -- Randi, Klass, Oberg, plus lesser lights. From a UFO standpoint, pickings are pretty lean - they spend more pages on Uri Geller than they do on UFO's. (O'course, Uri Geller is something of an anti-christ to CSICOP :-) Still in all, worth a read. (From my own point of view, I am wary of any book on the paranormal, of any flavor, that self-consciously announces itself as 'clear-headed,' as this one does in its introduction.)]

AUTHOR: Fuller, John Grant, 1913-
TITLE: The interrupted journey: two lost hours 'aboard a flying saucer,'
PUBLISHER New York, Dial Press, 1966.
[The Betty and Barney Hill story; the first case well-known case of abduction and missing time.]

AUTHOR: Fuller, John Grant, 1913-
TITLE: Incident at Exeter; the story of unidentified flying objects over America today
PUBLISHER New York, Putnam [1966]

AUTHOR: Good, Timothy. [Recommended]
TITLE: Above top secret : the worldwide UFO cover-up
with a foreword by admiral of the Fleet, the Lord Hill-Norton GCB, Chief of Defence Staff 1971-73.
London : Sidgwick & Jackson, c1987.
590 p., [16] leaves of plates : ill., ports. ; 25 cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
CALL #: TL789 .G66x
[KR: The most important book about the on-going government cover-up.]

[ Lots of very good information. A very good place to start reading on the phenomenon. Certainly a 'must-read'.] See also Clifford Stone's "U.F.O.s are Real", below.

AUTHOR: Good, Timothy. [Recommended]
TITLE: Alien Liaison: The Ultimate Secret
London : Century, 1991.
242 p., ISBN 0-7126-2194-6
[KR: A reliable introduction to the wilder tales circulating in the UFO subculture in the 70s, 80s, and 90s. The bizarre nature of what is known makes a prudent investigator reluctant to throw out any information. Some of this will turn out to be true after it is put through the academic mill in the 1990s and beyond. Not for the timid or intellectually rigid.]

AUTHOR: Goran, Morris Herbert, 1916-
TITLE: The modern myth, ancient astronauts and UFOs
PUBLISHER Cranbury, N.J. : A. S. Barnes, c1978.

AUTHOR: Gorliss, William (ed.)
TITLE: Sourcebook Project
PO Box 107
Glen Arm, Maryland, 21057, USA

AUTHOR: Grim, Patrick ed.
TITLE: Philosophy of science and the occult
PUBLISHER Albany : State University of New York Press, c1982.

AUTHOR: Haines, Richard (ed.)
TITLE: UFO Phenomena and the Behavioural Scientist
Scarecrow Press, 1979
[KR:Scholarly book of papers on how eye witnesses report UFOs and what cultural factors influence UFO reports.]

AUTHOR: Haines, Richard
TITLE: Advanced Aerial Devices Reported During the Korean War.
PUBLISHER: Los Altos, CA: LDA Press, 1990. 75pp. ISBN 0-9618082-1-7.
[KR: An important study of early military UFO sightings.]

AUTHOR: Haines, Richard
TITLE: Melbourne Episode: Case Study of a Missing Pilot
PUBLISHER: Los Altos, CA: L. D. A. Press, 1987. 275pp. ISBN 0-88229-540-3
[KR: Detailed review and analysis of the Australian Valentich airplane abduction case.]

[An episode of "Unsolved Mysteries" addressed this case, in which an Australian pilot and his plane disappeared after he radioed that he was being followed by an airborne object that was not an aircraft.]

AUTHOR: Haines, Richard
TITLE: Observing UFOs: An Investigative Handbook
PUBLISHER: Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1980 300pp, ISBN 0-88229-540-3
[KR: Exceedingly cautious scientific study of mostly night lights and daylight discs categories of UFOs.]

AUTHOR: Hall, Richard
TITLE: Uninvited Guests: A Documented History of UFO Sightings, Alien Encounters & Coverups
PUBLISHER Santa Fe, NM: Aurora Press, 1988. 381pp. ISBN 0-943358-32-9
[KR: A very good summary of the whole field of ufology. Highly recommended as a place to start.]

AUTHOR: Hendry, Allan.
TITLE: The UFO handbook : a guide to investigating, evaluating, and reporting
EDITION 1st ed.
PUBLISHER Garden City, N.Y. : Doubleday, 1979.
[KR: The best study of the subject. About 1300 UFO reports, all happening within the year of the study's duration, are dissected. 8.6% fall into the genuine UFOs category, that is, flying saucers, whatever they are!]

AUTHOR: Hervey, Michael.
TITLE: UFOs : the American scene .
PUBLISHER New York : St. Martin's Press, 1976.

AUTHOR: Hoagland, Richard C.
TITLE: The Monuments of Mars: A City on the Edge of Forever
PUBLISHER: Berkley, CA: North Atlantic Books, 1987, 1992
420pp. index, bibliography. 22p of plates
ISBN: 1-55643-118-X
[Here it is, Hoagland's opus on the "face on Mars", the purported pyramid complex, and all that. Big book, big price!]

AUTHOR: Holiday, Frederick William.
TITLE: The dragon and the disc; an investigation into the totally fantastic
PUBLISHER New York, Norton [1973]

AUTHOR: Hopkins, Budd, 1931-
TITLE: Intruders : the incredible visitations at Copley Woods
PUBLISHER New York : Random House, c1987.
[KR: Hopkins' second book. He says it is likely that aliens are mixing our genes with theirs, and this is a major purpose of the abductions.]

AUTHOR: Hopkins, Budd
TITLE: Missing Time: A Documented Study of UFO Abductions
Marek, 1981 258pp ISBN 0-399-90102-7
[KR: Hopkins' first book about abductions.]

AUTHOR: Howe, Linda Moulton
TITLE: An Alien Harvest: Further Evidence Linking Animal
Mutilations and Human Abductions to Alien Life Forms
PUBLISHER Littleton, CO: Linda Moulton Howe Productions, 1989. 455pp.
ISBN 0-9620570-1-0
[KR: Best book of surprisingly few considering the 25 year history of animal mutilations.]

[Followup to Ms. Howe's "A strange harvest."]

AUTHOR: Holroyd, Stuart
TITLE: Alien Intelligence
PUBLISHER New York: Everest House, 1979. 231pp. ISBN 0-89696-040-4
[KR: An excellent book by a student of the paranormal that compares the different kinds of intelligence, including ET intelligence and 'disembodied' intelligence.]

AUTHOR: Hynek, Joseph Allen, 1910-
TITLE: The Edge of reality : a progress report on Unidentified Flying Objects
PUBLISHER Chicago : Regnery, c1975.

AUTHOR: Hynek, Joseph Allen, 1910- [Recommended]
TITLE: The UFO experience; a scientific inquiry
New York, Ballantine Books, [c1972]; also Chicago, H. Regnery Co.
309 p. illus. 18 cm. Includes bibliographical references.
CALL #: TL789 .H9x 1972
[KR: The father of modern ufology writes a solid book about the subject.]

AUTHOR: Hynek, Joseph Allen; Imbrogno, Phillip J.; with Bob Pratt
TITLE: Night Seige: The Hudson Valley UFO Sightings
PUBLISHER New York, Ballentine Books, 1987
ISBN: 0-345-3708604
[KR: About the early 1980s boomerang UFO flap involving thousands of sightings.]

[This is Dr. Hynek's last book. Unfortunately, he died while it was being prepared. A great loss to the public UFO investigation movement.]

AUTHOR: Jacobs, David Michael, 1942-
TITLE: The UFO controversy in America
Bloomington : Indiana University Press, [1975]
362 p., [3] leaves of plates : ill. ; 24 cm.
Includes index. Bibliography: p. [345]-356.
CALL #: TL789 .J26 1975
[KR: A historian's review of ufology up to the date of publication.]

AUTHOR: Jacobs, David Michael, 1942-
TITLE: Secret Life: Firsthand Accounts of UFO Abductions
New York: Simon and Schuster, 1992
336p. ISBN 0-671-74857-2
[KR: The most important book on UFO abductions so far. Start here because the presentation is a just the facts, ma'am, blow by blow account of what Jacobs believes is happening. He says essential aspects of all abductions are absolutely real in ordinary perceptual and space-time reality. However, there are definite perceptual and space-time anomalies too. When people report that they had a missing time experience of two hours, Jacobs says they are actually bodily missing from planet Earth, or at least human beings cannot find them on Earth! A warning to extreme skeptics and debunkers: this book may be hazardous to your mental health!]

AUTHOR: Jessup, Morris K.
TITLE: The case for the UFO, unidentified flying objects.
PUBLISHER Clarksburg, W. Va. : Saucerian Press, 1973.

AUTHOR: Jung, Carl Gustav, 1875-
TITLE: Flying saucers; a modern myth of things seen in the skies.
PUBLISHER London, Routledge & Paul [1959]

AUTHOR: Keel, John A., 1930-
TITLE: UFO's: Operation Trojan Horse.
New York, Putnam [1970]
320 p. 22 cm. Bibliography: [308]-312.
CALL #: TL789 .K36 1970

AUTHOR: Keyhoe, Donald Edward, 1897-
TITLE: Aliens from space; the real story of unidentified flying objects
PUB. DATA -- Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, 1973.
[KR: Keyhoe says the US government has crashed saucers and alien bodies. He's probably right. The last of Keyhoe's five books about UFOs.]

AUTHOR: Keyhoe, Donald Edward, 1897-
TITLE: Flying saucers from outer space.
PUBLISHER New York, Holt [1953]

AUTHOR: Kinder, Gary
TITLE: Light Years: An investigation into the extraterrestrial experiences of Eduard Meier.
PUBLISHER New York, Atlantic Monthly Press, 1987
265 pages, 8 pages of plate, no index.
[KR: Easy introduction to the complex Billy Meier case. The case is noted for outstanding photos and film of UFOs and extensive contact notes.]

AUTHOR: Klass, Philip J.
TITLE: UFOs explained
PUBLISHER New York, Random House [1975, c1974]
[Phil Klass is the ultimate UFO skeptic; the current gadfly of UFOlogy. He is an intelligent, if somewhat arrogant fellow, and even the hardest-core 'believer' should be aware of him and his thesis (which is that all UFO's have 'prosaic' (i.e. mainstream-science-founded) explanations.) In the past, Mr. Klass would generally toss off a counter-explanation or two for ufo-related events (of varying match-the-facts value); of late, he has become a bit more eccentric, relying on character assassination and pronouncements of bovine scatology to see him through (in my opinion he tries more to convince the reader rather than find the truth), nevertheless he is an important writer in the UFO field, and should not be ignored, even if you don't like what he's saying. As a matter of fact, that's exactly why you should listen to what he says. Recently tossed out (no doubt gleefully) of a UFO conference for trying to record - against conference rules - proceedings on his own recorder.]

AUTHOR: Klass, Philip J.
TITLE: UFO-abductions : a dangerous game
Buffalo, N.Y. : Prometheus Books, c1988.
200 p., [8] p. of plates : ill. ; 24 cm. includes index.
CALL #: TL 789.3 .K57x 1988

AUTHOR: Klass, Philip J.
TITLE: UFOs -- identified
PUBLISHER New York, Random House [1968]
[As you can see, Mr. Klass has been at this for many years. He can be found in various "media outlets" on ufology. His arguments don't change much, but that doesn't mean you shouldn't be aware of his point of view.]

AUTHOR: Klass, Philip J.
TITLE: UFOs : the public deceived
PUBLISHER Buffalo, NY : Prometheus Books, c1983.

AUTHOR: Knight, David C.
TITLE: Those mysterious UFOs : the story of unidentified flying objects
PUBLISHER New York : Parents' Magazine Press, [1975]

AUTHOR: Knight, David C.
TITLE: UFOs, a pictorial history from antiquity to the present
PUBLISHER New York : McGraw-Hill, c1979. ISBN 0-07-035103-1
[KR: UFO photos galore.]

AUTHOR: Landsburg, Alan and Landsburg, Sally
TITLE: The Outer Space Connection
PUBLISHER New York: Bantam Books, 1975
[Book companion to the Landsburgs' produced movie of the same name (available on video.) Reminiscent of "Chariots of the Gods"; a lot of seemingly-unconnected ideas woven together to come up with the idea that outer space aliens, Egyptian mummies cloning, and the possiblity of immortality are all of a root cause. Landsburg went on to make the interesting and still very watchable In Search OF TV series.]

AUTHOR: Langford, David
TITLE: An account of a Meeting with Denizens of Another World, 1871
PUBLISHER: New York, St. Martin's Press, 1979, 96pp, ill.
Includes bibliographic references.
ISBN: 0-312-002335
[Yes, 1871!]

AUTHOR: Larsen, Sherman J.
TITLE: Close encounters : a factual report on UFOs foreword by J. Allen Hynek.
PUBLISHER Milwaukee : Raintree Publishers, c1978.

AUTHOR: Leslie, Desmond, 1921- and George Adamsk
TITLE: Flying saucers have landed
PUBLISHER New York : British Book Centre 1953.
[Adamski writes of his meeting with aliens and what they say about humans, the earth, and the universe.]

AUTHOR: Lindemann, Michael
TITLE: UFOs and Alien Presence: Six Viewpoints
PUBLISHER Santa Barbera, Ca., The 2020 Group, 1991
233pp. ISBN 0-9630104-0-9
[KR: Oh, what to do with all the disparate UFO evidence! Learn here how UFO luminaries Stanton Friedman, Budd Hopkins, Linda Howe, Don Ware, Bob Lazar, and an anonymous probable abductee make sense of it all, well, some small portion, anyway.]

AUTHOR: Liss, Howard.
TITLE: UFO's: unidentified flying objects.
1968.
CALL #: 001.9 L69luf

AUTHOR: Loftin, Robert.
TITLE: Identified flying saucers.
PUBLISHER New York, D. McKay Co. [1968]

AUTHOR: Lore, Gordon I. R.
TITLE: Mysteries of the skies; UFOs in perspective
PUBLISHER Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall [1968]

AUTHOR: Lorenzen, Coral E.
TITLE: Flying Saucers: The Startling Evidence of the Invasion from Outer Space
PUBLISHER: New York: Signet Books, 1966. Original TItle: The Great Flying Saucer Hoax (1962)

AUTHOR: Lorenzen, Coral and Jim Lorenzen
TITLE: Flying Saucer Occupants
PUBLISHER New York: New American Library (Signet), 1967. 215pp.
[KR: One of many important books by longtime UFO researchers and directors of the UFO investigative organization, APRO. Both deceased today, but not forgotten for their lasting contribution to ufology.]

AUTHOR: Mack, Dr. John
TITLE: Abduction
PUBLISHER New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1994. 432pp
[What the abduction phenomenon has needed all along. Serious research by serious (and qualified) people. Dr. Mack is professor of psychiatry at The Cambridge Hospital, Harvard Medical School for 20 years.]

AUTHOR: McCampbell, James M.
TITLE: UFOlogy: A Major Breakthrough in the Scientific Understanding of Unidentified Flying Objects
PUBLISHER Millbrae, Calif. : Celestial Arts, 1976.
184pp. ISBN 0-89087-144-2
[KR: Straightforward analysis of probable physics of UFO phenomena.]

[Mr. McCampbell's analysis also appeared (in shorter form) in the 1975 MUFON Symposium Proceedings.]

AUTHOR: McMoneagle, Joseph
TITLE: Mind Trek: Exploring Consciousness, Time, and Space Through Remote Viewing.
PUBLISHER Norfolk, VA: Hampton Roads Publishing Company, Inc., 1993
231pp. ISBN 1-878901-72-9
[A participant in the now-legendary SRI "Remote Viewing" experiment of the late 1970's/early 1980's. If you're interested in remote viewing, this and Brown's "Cosmic Voyage" are good places to start.]

AUTHOR: Menzel, Donald Howard, 1901-
TITLE: Flying saucers.
PUBLISHER Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1953.
[Menzel was the original great gadfly of Ufology. His books make interesting reading.]

AUTHOR: Menzel, Donald Howard, 1901-
TITLE: The UFO enigma : the definitive explanation of the UFO phenomenon
Donald H. Menzel & Ernest H. Taves ; introd. by Fred L. Whipple.
Garden City, N.Y. : Doubleday, 1977.
297 p., [16] pages of plates : ill. ; 22 cm. Includes bibliographical
references and index.
CALL #: TL789 .M458

AUTHOR: Menzel, Donald Howard, 1901-
TITLE: The world of flying saucers; a scientific examination of a major myth
PUBLISHER Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, 1963.

AUTHOR: Michel, Aime et. al, Charles Bowen, editor.
TITLE: The Humanoids
PUBLISHER Chicago, H. Regnery Co. [1969]

AUTHOR: Michel, Aime
TITLE: The Truth about Flying Saucers
PUBLISHER Spearman, 1958

AUTHOR: Michel, John
TITLE: The House of Lords UFO Debate
PUBLISHER Pentacle, 1979

AUTHOR: Michaels, J. B.
TITLE: UFO Encounters: The True Story behind the Brookhaven and Carp Incidents
PUBLISHER Stamford, Conn., Longmeadow Press, c1995, ISBB 0-681-00810-5

AUTHOR: Michaels, Susan
TITLE: Sightings: Beyond Imagination Lies the Truth
PUBLISHER New York: Simon and Schuster, c1996, ISBN 0-684-82369-1
[A collection of the Paramount TV show Sightings' episode subjects. In addition to UFO things, there are also "Hauntings" and "Unexplained" categories. UFO cases covered include the 1990-91 Avebury Lights, the 1990 Montreal sightings, the 1965 Kecksburg Pennsylvania crash, a 1991 Russian sighting, the 1991 Mexico City sightings, a 1973 UFO in Ohio, the 1948 Mantell case, a 1976 incident in Iran, and a couple of abduction cases. Each is given a 6-8 page summary.]

AUTHOR: Moyer, Ernest P.
TITLE: The day of celestial visitation
PUBLISHER Hicksville, N.Y. : Exposition Press, [1975]

AUTHOR: National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena. [NICAP]
TITLE: The UFO evidence; Richard H. Hall, editor.
PUBLISHER Washington, 1964.
l84 p. illus. 28 cm. Includes bibliographical references.
CALL #: TL789 .N3

AUTHOR: Noyes, Ralph, ed
TITLE: The Crop Circle Enigma: Grounding the Phenomenon in Science, Culture and Metaphysics
PUBLISHER Bath, UK: Gateway Books, 1990. 192pp. ISBN 0-946551-66-9
[KR: More facts and speculation about the 'agriglyphs'.]

AUTHOR: Oberg, James E., 1944-
TITLE: UFOs & outer space mysteries : a sympathetic skeptic's report
PUBLISHER Norfolk, Va. : Donning, c1982.

AUTHOR: Peebles, Curtis
TITLE: Watch the skies! A Chronicle of the flying saucer myth
PUBLISHER Smithsonian Institution, 1994
[This is definitely an 'anti' book. An interesting look at the phenomenon as a whole (the book covers the whole phenomenon from 1947 on). On Roswell, (I always look to see what a ufo survey book says about Roswell :-) Peebles attacks Moore&Berlitz's book, and takes a passing swipe at Randle&Schmitt's (implying that they thought the whole thing up via the MJ-12 documents -- an amusing, if pretty indefensible attitude.) An antagonist's view of UFO history.]

AUTHOR: Pugh, Randall and Holliday, F.W
TITLE: The Dyfed Enigma
Faber and Faber, 1979

AUTHOR: Randle, Kevin D. and Donald R. Schmitt
TITLE: UFO Crash at Roswell
PUBLISHER New York: Avon, 1991. 327pp. ISBN 0-380-76196-3
[KR: The authors don't back down. They say they have proved beyond a reasonable doubt that a flying saucer -- not a UFO -- crashed in NM in the summer of 1947. Get off your duff. Prove them wrong!]

[Not suberbly written, but nevertheless compelling. Very thorough research.]

AUTHOR: Randle, Kevin D. and Donald R. Schmitt [Recommended]
TITLE: The Truth about the UFO Crash at Roswell
PUBLISHER M. Evans and Company, Inc. New York, 1994
[Excellent followup to 'UFO Crash at Roswell'. Collecting yet more testimony, the authors resolve the apparent discrepancies among the various near-Roswell stories; for instance binding the 'Archeologist' stories into the Mac Brazel story. The story that won't go away gets more and more detailed.]

AUTHOR: Randle, Kevin D.
TITLE: The UFO Casebook
PUBLISHER New York: Warner Books, 1989. 256pp. ISBN 0-446-35715-4
[Chock-full of information about famous UFO cases from 1947 to 1989. Some cases are shown to be non-real, some to be perhaps-real, and some that may need re-examination. Mr. Randle has done an excellent job of research, looking into BlueBook files, newpaper records, interviewing witnesses, and analyzing cases. If you're just starting out in UFOlogy, this is an excellent book to 'jumpstart' you.]

AUTHOR: Randle, Kevin
TITLE: A History of UFO Crashes
PUBLISHER: Avon Books, New York, 1995. ISBN: 0-380-77666-9
[The author looks at six reported crashes and retrievals of UFOs, plus MJ-12, and more. Good appendix with a compendium of all reported crashes, with a brief synopsis and evaluation.]

AUTHOR: Randles, Jenny. and Peter Warrington.
TITLE: Science and the UFOs
Oxford, UK ; New York, NY, USA : B. Blackwell, 1985.
215 p., [8] p. of plates : ill. ; 24 cm. Includes index.
Bibliography: p. [199]-206.
CALL #: TL789 .R325 1985
[KR: Very good presentation of the range of evidence for genuine UFO reality.]

[ An excellent review of UFOlogy, with a discussion of the problems inherent in the field (including specific comments about the flaws in some UFOlogist's techniques and practices.)]

AUTHOR: Randles, J.
TITLE: UFO Study
Robert Hale, 1981

AUTHOR: Randles, J.
TITLE: UFO Reality
Robert Hale, 1983 248pp. ISBN 0-7090-1080-X. [KR: Very good presentation of the range of evidence for genuine UFO reality.]

AUTHOR: Randles, J.
TITLE: The Pennine UFO Mystery
Granada, 1983

AUTHOR: Randles, Jenny
TITLE: Abduction: Over 200 Documented UFO Kidnappings Investigated
PUBLISHER London: Robert Hale, 1988. 240pp. ISBN 0-7090-3276-5
[KR: A British UFO researcher does a book about abductions. It is important for showing that abductions are not just a North (or South) American phenomenon.]

AUTHOR: Randles, Jenny
TITLE: The UFO Conspiracy: The First Forty Years
PUBLISHER New York: Blanford Press, 1987. 224pp. ISBN 0-7137-1972-9
[KR: Excellent summary of the worldwide coverup of UFO information.]

AUTHOR: Randles, J. and Warrington, Peter
TITLE: UFOs: A British Viewpoint

AUTHOR: Randles, J. and Whetnall, Paul
TITLE: Alien Contact
PUBLISHER Spearman, 1982

AUTHOR: Randles, Jenny
TITLE: From Out of the Blue: The Incredible UFO Cover-up at Bentwaters NATO Air base
PUBLISHER New Brunswick, NJ: Global Communication, 1991
192pp ISBN 0-938294-08-3
[KR: Randles treats us to the latest, updated information on the Bentwaters RAFB, Great Britain, landing of December 1980.]

AUTHOR: Randles, Jenny
TITLE: UFOs & How to See Them
PUBLISHER Sterling Publishing, New York, 1992
144pp ISBN 0-8069-0297-3
[Good survey of UFO history; lots of photos, shows how to spot hoaxes, crop circles, ufo "hot spots" around the globe. Good book for those just starting out, who don't want to get too bogged down in dreary detail.]

AUTHOR: Randles, Jenny
TITLE: Alien Contact: The First Fifty Years
PUBLISHER: New York: Barns & Noble, 1997
141pp plus index, ISBN 0-7607-0545-3
Another Randles 'survey' book, this time going year-by-year from 1947 through 1996, with a 2-4 page narrative on each year (with the occasional sidebar). Very readable style, another good book for those just starting out to learn about the phenomenon.

AUTHOR: Rasmussen, Richard Michael.
TITLE: The UFO literature : a comprehensive annotated bibliography of works in English
PUBLISHER Jefferson, N.C. : McFarland, c1985.
263 p. ; 23 cm. Includes index.
CALL #: TL789 .R37x 1985

AUTHOR: Rehn, K. Gosta, 1891-
TITLE: UFOs here and now ; translated from the Swedish by Patricia Crampton.
PUBLISHER London : Abelard, 1974.

AUTHOR: Rimmer, John
TITLE: The Evidence of Alien Abductions
PUBLISHER Aquarian Press, 1984

AUTHOR: Rodgers, Kay.
TITLE: Unidentified flying objects : a selected bibliography
compiled by Kay Rodgers, Reference Section, Science and PUBLISHER Washington : Library of Congress, 1976.

AUTHOR: Rothman, Milton A.
TITLE: A physicist's guide to skepticism : applying laws of physics to faster-than-light travel, psychic phenomena, telepathy, time travel, UFO's, and other pseudoscientific claims
PUBLISHER Buffalo, N.Y. : Prometheus Books, c1988.
247 p. : ill. ; 24 cm. Includes bibliographies and index.
CALL #: Q175 .R5648 1988

AUTHOR: Ruppelt, Edward
TITLE: The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects
Ace Books, 1956
[KR: Written by a former head of the AF's Project Blue Book public relations UFO effort. 'Brand New Enlarged Edition Latest, Up-to-the-minute Facts on UFO!' on dust jacket. No indication whatsoever inside the new edition that it differs from the earlier edition by the addition of three extra (debunking) chapters. Without the dust jacket you would never know there are two distinct editions of this classic UFO book. Some UFO researchers speculate that the Air Force/CIA was displeased enough with Ruppelt's pro-UFO first edition that they made him include the last three chapters in the 'new edition'!]

AUTHOR: Rutledge, Harley D.
TITLE: Project Identification : the first scientific field study of UFO phenomena
PUBLISHER Englewood Cliffs, N.J. : Prentice-Hall, c1981.
265 p., [16] p. of plates : ill. ; 24 cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
831217
CALL #: TL789 .R83

AUTHOR: Sable, Martin Howard.
TITLE: Exobiology : a research guide .
PUBLISHER Brighton, Mich. : Green Oak Press, 1978.

AUTHOR: Sable, Martin Howard.
TITLE: UFO guide: 1947-1967
PUBLISHER Beverly Hills, Calif., Rainbow Press Co., 1967.

AUTHOR: Sagan, Carl, 1934- and Thornton Page. ed.
TITLE: UFO's -- a scientific debate.
PUBLISHER Ithaca [N.Y.] Cornell University Press [1972] 310pp. ISBN 0-393-00739-1
[KR: Appeared shortly after the Condon Committee Report said once again that saucers don't exist so they won't be studied by science. UFO proponents, debunkers, and honest skeptics have their say here.]

AUTHOR: Sagan, Carl
TITLE: Other Worlds
PUBLISHER New York: Bantam Books 1975
[A lightweight but fun little book that surveys the solar system and the possibllty of life there and elsewhere. Maintains both the possibility that extraterrestrials are out there (maybe even nearby), and that people who think that extraterrestrials are visiting us are "softheaded". Throw in some pious whining about how paranormalism is so much more popular than hard science (maybe because paranormalists are more fun at parties?) It's a better book than I let on -- it's just more fun, in this context, to attack it. (Sagan is also the fellow who maintains that manned space flight is a waste of time ("The Space Shuttle", Discovery Channel, 1994), that belief in any supreme being is an excercise in egocentrism (Dennis Prager Show Interview, 1994), and who held (and may still hold - I've not heard of him debunking himself) the nuclear winter theory -- remember when he went on TV during the Gulf War claiming that all those oil-well fires were going to bring on a mini-winter, thus vindicating his theories? Oh well, science is just as much about being wrong as right, they say.)]

AUTHOR: Salisbury, Frank B.
TITLE: The Utah UFO display : a biologist's report
with data from the files of Joseph Junior Hicks
foreword by J. Allen Hynek.
PUBLISHER Old Greenwich, Conn. : Devin-Adair Co., c1974.
286 p., [8] leaves of plates : ill. ; 22 cm. Includes index.
Bibliography: p. [231]-238.
CALL #: TL789 .S18
[KR: Straightforward recounting of UFO events in Utah 1966-1973 with some intelligent speculation about what it might mean.]

AUTHOR: Sanderson, Ivan Terence, 1911-
TITLE: Invisible residents; a disquisition upon certain matters maritime
PUBLISHER New York, World Pub. Co. [1970]

AUTHOR: Sanderson, Ivan Terence, 1911-
TITLE: Uninvited visitors; a biologist looks at UFO's
PUBLISHER New York, Cowles Education Corp., 1967]

AUTHOR: Saunders, David Robertson, 1923-
TITLE: UFOs? Yes! Where the Condon committee went wrong
PUBLISHER New York, World Pub. Co. [1969, c1968] 256pp. LC 68-59202
[KR: This book was written by a scientist (Saunders) fired by Condon when he leaked a confidential department memo that made it clear that the Condon UFO Study was a sham.]

[An inside look at the Condon Committee, how it operated, and why it disintegrated. Also useful as a case-study of academic investigations in general, in this case where the 'Principal Investigator' takes his salary and ignores the actual work. ]

AUTHOR: Sawislak, Arnold.
TITLE: Dwarf rapes nun, flees in UFO.
PUBLISHER New York : St. Martin's Press, c1985.
212 p. ; 22 cm.
CALL #: PS3569 .A858 D8 1985

AUTHOR: Schwarz, Bertold E.
TITLE: UFO Dynamics: Psychiatric and Psychic Aspects of the UFO Syndrome.
PUBLISHER Moore Haven, FL: Rainbow Books, 1988
560pp. ISBN 0-935834-654-8
[KR: A psychiatrist deals with the psychic components of the UFO phenomena.]

AUTHOR: Scully, Frank
TITLE: Behind the Flying Saucers
PUBLISHER New York: Henry Holt, 1950. 230pp.
[KR: The first book in English about UFOs. Hollywood reporter talks about crashed discs that have only become plausible to mainstream investigators again in the 1980s.]

AUTHOR: Seargent, David
TITLE: UFOs: A Scientific Enigma?
PUSLISHER Sphere, 1978

AUTHOR: Sheaffer, Robert.
TITLE: The UFO verdict : examining the evidence
PUBLISHER Buffalo, N.Y. : Prometheus Books, 1981, c1980.
242 p., [16] p. of plates : ill. ; 24 cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
CALL #: TL789 .S38

AUTHOR: Shuttlewood, Arthur.
TITLE: More UFOs over Warminster
PUBLISHER London : A. Barker Ltd., c1979.

AUTHOR: Sifakis, Carl.
TITLE: Official guide to UFO sightings.
PUBLISHER New York : Sterling Pub., c1979.

AUTHOR: Sitchin, Zecharia
TITLE: The 12th Planet
PUBLISHER New York: Avon, 1978. 436pp. ISBN 0-380-39362-X
[KR: This lay scholar/journalist presents the best documented ancient astronaut evidence in his series of books -- this being the first one.]

AUTHOR: Snyder, Gerald S.
TITLE: Are there alien beings? : The story of UFOs
PUBLISHER New York : J. Messner, c1980.
191 p. : ill. ; 22 cm. Includes index. Bibliography: p. 185-186.
Summary: A study of well-known cases involving unidentified flying objects.
CALL #: 001.9 Sn92ar

AUTHOR: Spencer, David T
TITLE: UFO Field Investigator's Training Guide
PUBLISHER Austin, TX: MUFON 1995, pp 304
[If you want to know the guts of investigating, here's where you start: Code of Ethics, interviewing technique, detecting hoaxes, investigation, aircraft ID, sciences, etc. This and the MUFON "FIeld Investigator's Manual" will point you in the right direction -- pricey, but worth it, if you're serious.]

AUTHOR: Spencer, John, and Hilary Evans, eds.
TITLE: Phenomenon : forty years of flying saucers
PUBLISHER New York : Avon Books, 1989, c1988. 413pp. ISBN 0-380-70654-7
[KR: Essays about ufology from prominent ufologists in America and Europe. Good for seeing that UFOs are a worldwide phenomenon.]

AUTHOR: Spencer, John, ed.
TITLE: The UFO Encyclopedia
PUBLISHER: New York: Avon Books, 1991, 340pp, 20 p. of plates.
Includes bibliographic references.
CALL #: TL789.U35 1993
ISBN: 0-380-76887-9

AUTHOR: Steiger, Brad.
TITLE: Gods of Aquarius : UFOs and the transformation of man
PUBLISHER New York : Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, c1976.

AUTHOR: Steiger, Brad.
TITLE: Mysteries of time & space.
PUBLISHER Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall [1974]

AUTHOR: Steiger, Brad, comp.
TITLE: Other worlds, other universes : playing the reality game
PUBLISHER Garden City, N.Y. : Doubleday, 1975.

AUTHOR: Steiger, Brad, and Francie
TITLE: The Star People
PUBLISHER New York, N.Y.: Berkeley Books, 1981.
201 pages, includes index.
[Mostly a 'new age' book; the Steigers contend that some humans (abductees) are indoctrinated at an early age by extra-terrestrial/temporal/dimensional beings (i.e. a child's 'invisible friends' are actually real) who are trying to move humanity to the next 'plane'. Unfortunately, much of the 'evidence' is collected by extremely haphazard methods, including dream-analysis and 'channeled' information by Mrs. Steiger. UFO's are dealt with only in passing; they are regarded as a byproduct of the 'new-age' stuff, not as a phenomenon in and of themselves.]

AUTHOR: Steiger, Brad
TITLE: Project Blue Book
PUBLISHER Ballantine, 1976
[Not exactly what the title says it is -- it also includes a short history of official US UFO investigations up through Blue Book, and a collection of documents surrounding Blue Book, Sign, and Grudge, plus a (brief) listing of all 578 'unidentifieds' from the Blue Book files (out of 13,000 from 1947 to 1969), and more.]

AUTHOR: Steiger, Brad
TitLE: The Rainbow Conspiracy
PUBLISHER: New York: Pinnacle Books, Windsor Publishing Corp., 1994
[Could be a dictionary for UFO-related conspiracy theories. Its all in here: Nazi flying saucers, The Philadelphia Experiment, underground bases, men-in-black, "The Secret Government", MJ-12, good aliens, evil aliens, you name it. Not too much on 'hard data', but what the heck! If you want a look at the "wild side" of ufology, this is a good place to start (but don't necessarily believe it all, ok?)]

AUTHOR: Stone, Clifford E.
TITLE: U.F.O.s are Real
PUBLISHER: New York: SPI. Books, 1997
55 pages, plus 119 reproductions of various documents (so the book is actually quite thick).
ISBN 1-56171-972-2
A very good compilation of many UFO-related US Government documents from the history of ufology, plus miscellaneous others, for instance the famous "MJ-12" docuemnts, UFO-related letters from government agencies and Congresmen. Very handy reference, only impeded by the lack of page numbering including the documents (obviously done to allow complete reproductions of the various documents, so it makes sense, but makes quick acess to individual documents more difficult.) A good companion to Timothy Good's "Above Top Secret"

AUTHOR: Story, Ronald.
TITLE: The space-gods revealed : a close look at the theories of Erich von Daniken
PUBLISHER New York : Harper & Row, c1976.
DESCRIP xviii, 139 p. : ill. ; 22 cm.
NOTES Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0060141417 :
RLIN ID G75030347B
[A general refutation of von Daniken's 'Chariots of the Gods' (et. al). Occasionally paints with too broad a brush, but still a good read (especially right after reading CotG.)]

AUTHOR: Story, Ronald.
TITLE: UFOs and the limits of science
PUBLISHER New York : Morrow, 1981.

AUTHOR: Story, Ronald.
TITLE: The Encyclopedia of UFO's
PUBLISHER Garden City, N.Y. : Dolphin Books, 1980. 440pp. ISBN 0-385-11681-0
[KR: The best of the encyclopedic books on UFOs. Don't miss this. Get your local library to buy a copy.]

AUTHOR: Story, Ronald.
TITLE: Guardians of the universe?
PUBLISHER New York : St. Martin's Press, c1980.

AUTHOR: Stranges, Dr. Frank E.
TITLE: Stranger at the Pentagon
PUBLISHER: Inner Light, New Brunswick, NJ First printing 1967, copyright 1991 (" fourth revised edition")
[Another one of those great oddball UFO stories - that of "Valient Thor", who, as the story goes, is from Venus; on March 16, 1957 he appeared in Alexandria VA, and was whisked off to meet President Eisenhower - and he has moved though the corridors of power ever since. The earth, it seems, has been "protected" by 100 alien spaceships, lest we blow away our atmosphere with nuclear weapons. Thor is (according to this) an amazing fellow: teleportation , thought-transferrence, and mind control are among his abilities. The book is a mix of Ufo-ism and religion - Men in Black and Christian theology colocate quite comfortably. I'm a sucker (as you know) for things like what appears on the back: "NOT Endorsed by the USAF! NOT Financed by the CIA!" Thor now lives just east of Las Vegas in his spaceship "Victor One"about a mile north of the intersection of Highways 147 and 166, by the way.]

AUTHOR: Strieber, Whitley
TITLE: Communion: A True Story
PUBLISHER New York: William Morrow, 1987. 299pp. ISBN 0-688-07086-8
[KR: Bestselling book by previously bestselling author. It's about his probable abductions.]

[Whitley Strieber has become something of an anti-UFO in later years; he has ceased publication of his Communion Newsletter and has called UFO researchers in general 'crazy' and 'nasty' (a not baseless description of some of them.) Strieber is also the author of horror novels (notably 'Wolfen'.)]

AUTHOR: Strieber, Whitley
TITLE: Transformation: The Breakthrough
PUBLISHER New York: Beech Tree Books - William Morrow, 1988. 256pp.

AUTHOR: Streiber, Whitley
TITLE: Majestic
PUBLISHER New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1989
[A novel from the writer of "Communion", centering on the architect of the Majestic-12 . Interesting read, though some of its flights of fancy didn't fit for me. I guess this book came and went pretty quickly, I had never heard of it until I stumbled across it in a on-special-get-it-outta-here bin.]

AUTHOR: Stringfield, Leonard H.
TITLE: Situation red, the UFO siege!
; with a foreword by Donald E. Keyhoe.
PUBLISHER Garden City, N.Y. : Doubleday, 1977.
[Extremely hard to find - I was lucky enough to obtain one from Mr. Stringfield himself before his unfortunate passing (see below.)
SAFEONE346@aol.com offers this helpful pointer -- abebooks.com -- which was able to obtain a copy for him.]

AUTHOR: Stringfield, Leonard H. [Reccommended, as is anything by Stringfield]
TITLE: The UFO Crash-Retrieval Syndrome: Status Report II: New Sources, New Data.
1980. Available from MUFON, 38 pages
[An excellent casebook by Mr. Stringfield of reports of crashed and recovered objects and recovered bodies (Stringfield invented the term crash-retrieval in this context, in fact.) Although witnesses are anonymous (e.g. 'JK', 'Carl', etc.), in accordance with their wishes (Stringfield makes the comment that rather than treating the UFO-crash story as newspaper journalists, investigators should respect their sources identities, like medical journals do), the information is compelling and presented without comments beyond the witness' background and general information about the veracity. A good read, and an important one. Cases are rated as 'first hand' and 'second hand.' Stringfield's first 'status report' appeared in the proceedings of the 1978 MUFON Symposium on UFO's.]

AUTHOR: Stringfield, Leonard H.
TITLE: The UFO Crash/Retrievals: Amassing the Evidence. (Status Report III)
1982. Available from MUFON, 53 pages
[More information like CR II, with equal (high) value. Information presented without prejudice - a major difference from most UFO books! ]

AUTHOR: Stringfield, Leonard H.
TITLE: The Fatal Encouter at Ft. Dix-McGuire: A Case Study (Status Report IV)
1985, presented at the 1985 MUFON Symposium. 26 pages.
[Details of a January 1978 incident in New Jersey in which a humanoid was recovered after several UFOs were sighted at Ft. Dix. (Yes, there really is a Ft. Dix in NJ.) Local security forces chased (and shot) the humanoid, which fled but died on the grounds of adjacent McGuire AFB. The recovery was reportedly carried out by military teams specially trained for this purpose.]

AUTHOR: Stringfield, Leonard H.
TITLE: UFO Crash/Retrievals: Is the Coverup Lid Lifting? (Status Report V)
1989, published by the author. 22 pages.
[More interesting cases that came Mr. Stringfield's way.]

AUTHOR: Stringfield, Leonard H.
TITLE: UFO Crash/Retrievals: The Inner Sanctum (Status Report VI)
1991, published by the author 142 pages
[A wide-ranging survey of seen bodies, crashed objects, witnesses, hoaxes uncovered (including the 'dead alien' photo supposedly from Russia, which apparently was part of an exhibition at the Pavillion del insolite in Montreal -- I would welcome confirmation of this from Montreal folks, btw) and the Mermaid Man (seen in an episode of The X-Files, appropriately titled "Humbug"). More good reading.]

AUTHOR: Stringfield, Leonard H.
TITLE: UFO Crash/Retrievals: Search for Proof in a Hall of Mirrors (Status Report VII)
1994, published by the author. 67 pages
[The last, alas, report from a largely-unknown giant of UFO investigation - unknown only because he spent his time investigating, not writing books. More on various crashes - Roswell, Kecksburg, incidents in WWII, and more. Mr. Stringfield has passed away. We can only hope that someone else will step forward with the same diligence, discretion, and intelligence that Mr. Stringfield showed for over 40 years of investigation into the UFO phenomenon, to continue the research into the "Hall of MIrrors" that is investigation of things the government would rather not be told.]

AUTHOR: Tacker, Lawrence J.
TITLE: Flying saucers and the U. S. Air Force.
PUBLISHER Princeton, N.J., Van Nostrand [1960]
[Tacker was a Lt. Colonel in the USAF. This is not exactly an official report by the USAF, but it's pretty clear that Tacker had official help and endorsement -- the book's foreword is written by Gen. Thomas D. White, Chief of Staff of the USAF. The book might best be summed up: "don't worry -- be happy!" Pronouncing "the flying saucer era is coming to an end" (ok, so that part was wrong), the book is an ernest attempt to explain that the USAF has done a great job, and those UFO things are really nothing at all. Denies that the ATIC "ufo's are real" memo was ever written (in 1960, the memo was still classified.) The same old reasons are trotted out (well, they weren't so old back then) -- the 1952 sightings were a temperature inversion (Keyhoe says they couldn't have been -- the inversion was in too narrow a range to cause radar reflections); Kenneth Arnold's sighting in 1947 is written off as a mirage, etc. Transcript of an interview with Donald Menzel, and J. Allen Hynek (before he changed sides). Lots of neat little tidbits; appendix includes USAF regulations on UFO's (including the famous JANAP 146, and a selection of UFO-related USAF press-releases from 1955-1960 (interestingly, press releases -- or at least UFO-related releases from 1948-1954 were not kept by the USAF - or at least so it says here.)]

AUTHOR: Thomas, Paul
TITLE: Flying Saucers Throughout the Ages
PUBLISHER Tandem, 1973

AUTHOR: Thompson, Keith
TITLE: Angels and Aliens: UFOs and the Mythic Imagination
PUBLISHER New York: Ballantine Books, 1990.
263pp ISBN 0-201-55084-9
[KR: A minor lay scholar of the Jungian school takes on the UFO. His history of the field should be read by all UFO investigators. He suspects there might be a 'real' component to UFOs, but his emphasis is on the mythic aspects, which may be more important in the final analysis anyway.]

AUTHOR: Thompson, Richard
TITLE: Alien Identities: Ancient Insights into Modern UFO Phenomena
PUBLISHER: 1995, 472pp ISBN 0-9635309-4-1.
[Chris Beetle: Starting parallels between modern UFO accounts and the ancient Sanskrit writings of India give fresh insights into the identity and purposes of UFO visitors.
There is a web site describing it at: http://nersp.nerdc.ufl.edu/~ghi/ai.html]

AUTHOR: Watson, Ian
TITLE: Miracle Visitors
PUBLISHER Gollancz, 1978

TITLE: UFOs 1947-1987 : the 40 year search for an explanation
compiled and edited by Hilary Evans with John Spencer for the British
UFO Research Association.
PUBLISHER London : Fortean Tomes, 1987.
383 p. : ill., ports. ; 25 cm. Bibliography: p. 380-383.
CALL #: TL 789 .U36x 1987

AUTHOR: Richard F. Haines, ed.
TITLE: UFO phenomena and the behavioral scientist
PUBLISHER Metuchen, N.J. : Scarecrow Press, 1979.
450 p. : ill. ; 23 cm. Includes bibliographical references and index.
CALL #: TL789 .U19

AUTHOR: United States. Congress. House. Committee on Science and Astronautics
TITLE: Aliens in the skies; the scientific rebuttal to the Condon Committee
PUBLISHER New York, Putnam [1969]

AUTHOR: United States. Congress. House. Committee on Armed Services
TITLE: Unidentified flying objects. Hearing, Eighty-ninth
Congress, second session, April 5, 1966.
Services.
PUBLISHER Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1966

AUTHOR: United States. Congress. House. Committee on
TITLE: Symposium on unidentified flying objects. Hearings,
Ninetieth Congress, second session. July 29, 1968.
Science and Astronautics.
PUBLISHER Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1968.

AUTHOR: Vallee, Jacques.
TITLE: Messengers of Deception: UFO Contacts and Cults
PUBLISHER Berkeley, CA: And/Or Press, 1979. 243pp. ISBN 0-915904-38-1.
[KR: Just what the title says. Vallee adds to our understanding of the cultural effects of UFOs.]

AUTHOR: Vallee, Jacques.
TITLE: The invisible college : what a group of scientists has discovered about UFOs
PUBLISHER New York : Dutton, c1975.

AUTHOR: Vallee, Jacques.
TITLE: Anatomy of a phenomenon: unidentified objects in space
PUBLISHER Chicago, H. Regnery Co. [1965]

AUTHOR: Vallee, Jacques. [Recommended]
TITLE: Confrontations : a scientist's search for alien contact
PUBLISHER New York : Ballantine Books, 1990. 263pp. ISBN 0-345-36453-8
[KR: Vallee is back to presenting 'hard evidence' again instead of speculation. Some Brazilian peasants were killed in apparent encounters with UFOs.]

AUTHOR: Vallee, Jacques. and Janine Vallee.
TITLE: Challenge to science; the UFO enigma
Chicago, Regnery [1966]
268 p. illus., maps. 25 cm. Bibliography: p. 241-258.
CALL #: TL789 .V335

AUTHOR: Vallee, Jacques.
TITLE: Passport to Magonia: from folklore to flying saucers.
PUBLISHER Chicago, H. Regnery Co. [1969] 372pp. ISBN 0-8092-8330-1
[KR: A study of the surprising parallels between fairy lore and modern accounts of UFO beings.]

AUTHOR: Vallee, Jacques. [Recommended]
TITLE: Dimensions: A Casebook of Alien Contact
PUBLISHER New York: Contemporary Books, 1988. 304pp. ISBN 0-8092-4586-8
[KR: The best statement of Vallee's thesis -- UFOs are a manifestation of a time immemorial alien control system.]

AUTHOR: Vallee, Jacques.
TITLE: UFO Chronicles of the Soviet Union: A Cosmic Samizdat
PUBLISHER New York: Ballentine Books, 1992.
212pp. ISBN 0-345-37396-0
[KR: Vallee turns away from excessive American ufologist bashing to give us a reasonable rundown on the latest in Russian UFOs and ufology. It's been as bad over there as it has been elsewhere. The aliens seem to be equal opportunity abusers the world over.]

AUTHOR: Vesco, Renato and Childress, David Hatcher
TITLE: Man-Made UFOs 1944-1994: 50 years of Suppression
PUBLISHER: Stelle, Illinois: Adventures Unlimited Press, 1994
[Despite the name, this book is mostly about the 1940's and 1950's, with what's left mostly dealing with the 1960's. "Nazi UFO's" get major play here, along with the claim of a Nazi escape after the war -- to Antartica?!? Well, the pictures are pretty good; and if this fairly esoteric bit of the genre interests you, here ya go.]

AUTHOR: Walters, Ed and Walters, Frances
TITLE: The Gulf Breeze Sightings
PUBLISHER: New York: Avon Books
[The book - well, the "pro" book -- on the various things seen (and photographed) in the sky at Gulf Breeze, FL.]

AUTHOR: Walters, Ed and Walters, Frances
TITLE: UFO Abductions in Gulf Breeze
PUBLISHER: New York: Avon Books, 1994 294pp 8 p. of plates
ISBN: 0-380-77333-3

AUTHOR: Willcox, P.J.
TITLE: The UFO question (not yet answered)
PUBLISHER Roslyn Heights, N. Y. : Libra Publishers, c1976.
277 p. ; 23 cm.
Examination of the Condon study.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
CALL #: TL789 .W5x

AUTHOR: Wilson, Clifford
TITLE: Alien Agenda, The
PUBLISHER Signet Books, 1974, 1988
227 p., Notes, Bibliography

AUTHOR: Yates, Allan.
TITLE: UFO'S [sound recording]
DESCRIP 2 sound cassettes.
PUBLISHER North Hollywood, CA : Center for Cassette Studies, [197-?]

AUTHOR: Zerrudo, Nelson V.
TITLE: Philippine UFOs? : an anthology of strange real-life UFO encounters in the country
by Nelson V. Zerrudo with Peter Shearer.
Longbeach, Calif. : Ethel Z. Noriega, c1987.
93 p. : 8 ill. ; 23 cm. Bibliography: p. 91-92
CALL #: TL789.3 .Z47x
PUBLISHER New York : British Book Centre 1953.


Some Non-UFO, but paranormally interesting books. . .

AUTHOR: Anderson, U.S.
TITLE: The Secret Power Of The Pyramids.
PUBLISH DATE: 1977.

AUTHOR: Anka, Darryl. Channeled By. (Compiled And Edited By Liuana Ewing).
TITLE: Bashar: Blueprint For Change.
PUBLISH DATE: 1990.

AUTHOR: Atkins, Tomas (& John Baxter).
TITLE: The Fire Came By.
PUBLISH DATE: 1976.

AUTHOR: Burrows, William E.
TITLE: Deep Black
New York, Berkeley Books, 1986
405 p. ISBN 0-425-10879-1
Includes bibliographical references and index
[Not strictly a UFO book, but an excellent survey of air and space intelligence hardware, and the history of air and space spying. Tons of details.]

AUTHOR: Cheney, Margaret
TITLE: Tesla: Man out of Time
PUBLISHER Englewood Cliffs, NJ : Prentice-Hall, 1981
ISBN 0-13-906859-7 TK140.T4 C47
[Sooner or later in your UFO readings you will come across the name of Nikola Tesla (1856-1943), the electrical wizard. This is 'the book' on him (mostly because it's the only one in print.) Tesla was a genius of the first magnitude. He of course, is the inventor of the Tesla coil, used to this day in all sorts of electrical devices (and the AC motor, and a host of other things.) For our purposes, though, it is the 'urban legend' of sorts that has grown up about his last years and the 'conspiracy' to hide what he was doing that is interesting -- though he did have a lot of neat ideas, there is little evidence that, as some Tesla partisans seem to think, that he invented practically everything. (The passion of Tesla partisans is also seen in some ufologists, and there is some overlap.) Tesla is also something of an inventor's hero, since he was in large part an incredibly gifted "amateur", rather than a 'professional' (or perhaps, "production-line style") inventor like his contemporary (and compeditor), Thomas Edison (this is not to say that Tesla was in any way less educated or less of a genius, by the way.) This book may change some of your view of the paths of the 'march of progress' of the last 100-odd years.]

AUTHOR: Cathie, Bruce L. (Bruce Leonard), 1930-
TITLE: The energy grid, harmonic 695, the pulse of the universe: the investigation into the world energy grid
PUBLISHER Tehachapi, CA : American West Publishers, 1990.

AUTHOR: Kaku, Michio
TITLE: Hyperspace: A Scientific Odyssey Through Parallel Universes, Time Warps, and the 10th Dimension
PUBLISHER New York: Anchor Books (Doubleday), c1994, ISBN 0-385-47705-8 (pbk.)
[There is a strain of UFO theory that says (rather nebulously) that UFO's are "extradimensional craft". Well, here's a book to teach you what higher dimensions might be and what they might mean. Written in a very readable style, with illustrations that help (a lot) describe what is being talked about -- the current "hot theory" in physics, 10-dimensional space as used to describe all physical laws, and "superstrings". As the author says, 20th-century physicists may well have stumbled onto 21st (or 22nd) century physics a century early; giving us a theory we are technologically incapable of proving.
A substantial portion of the book speculates on the things that might be doable if this view of the universe turns out to be true: travel to parallel universes, time-travel, and escaping the death of the universe (well, our universe.) Heady stuff, but Dr. Kaku explains it so even a doofus like me can understand. (Kaku has a Ph.D. in Physics from UC-Berkeley.)]

AUTHOR: Moore, Clara Bloomfield
TITLE: Keely and his Discoveries
PUBLISHER: Secaucus, NJ: University Books, 1972, originally published
in 1893, 373 pp.
LOC: 77-188022
[Sooner or later, like Tesla, you'll come across John Ernst Worrell Keely, and his 'vibratory etheric forces' for generating usable energy. This book was originally published by his biggest fan, the author and poet Clara Bloomfield Moore. A new foreward by Leslie Shepard tells a bit of the 'anti' side of the Keely story. (In sum, opponents argue - with some justification - that Keely was something of a charlatan; proponents argue that he may have been on to something anyway.) Still and all, an interesting look at 'para-science' in the 19th century. The BBS network 'Keelynet' is named for this fellow.]

AUTHOR: Rich, Ben and Janos, Leo
TITLE: Skunk Works
PUBLISHER New York: Little, Brown and Company, 1994, ISBN 0-316-74330-5
[Ben Rich worked in Lockheed's "Skunk Works" from 1954 to 1991, and headed the place from 1975 to 1991. This book is chock-full of amazing little anecdotes about various projects (and secret projects in general). It's one of those rare looks 'behind the curtain' at the world of "black projects." Everything from the selection of the site of the now-famous secret base at Groom Lake (though Rich never does say "Groom Lake" -- that is still secret, you know), to the CIA having Lockheed engineers fake up a bogus flight manual for the U-2, for the express purpose of leaking it the the Soviets (with fake instrument panel photos, faked speed, altitude and so on values), to a project code-named Suntan, -- a hydrogen-powered replacement for the U-2 in 1957 that was classified above top secret (but never went to completion -- just so you know there are classifications above "Top" secret) to a 1959 incident in which a Taiwanese U-2 pilot, being trained by the CIA, 'flamed out' while on a flight, and made an emergency landing at a small county airport at dusk -- imagine being the airport's manager, seeing a weird-looking craft land, after which an almond-eyed, space-suited being jumped out, ran over to you shouting in barely passable English, "Quick! Get gun! Guard plane -- very, very secret!"]

AUTHOR: Miller, Jay
TITLE: Lockheed's Skunk Works: The First Fifty Years
PUBLISHER Arlington, TX: Aerofax, Inc. 1993
[Exhaustive description of the Skunk Works' projects from 1943 (XP-80) to 1993 (F-22). Stuffed full of excellent photos, with a marvelously informative narrative. (Which doesn't mention Groom Lake by name either, btw.)]

AUTHOR: Sweetman, Bill
TITLE: Aurora: The Pentagon's Secret Hypersonic Spyplane
PUBLISHER Osceola, WI: Motor Books International, 1993.
[A look at "black budget" programs, and a summary of the case for the existance of "Aurora".]